Disease Markers / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

CSF Levels of Angiopoietin-2 Do Not Differ between Patients with CSF Fluid Leakage Syndrome and Controls

Table 1

Overview of demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics. CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; BMI: body mass index; DD: disease duration (defined as the time period from first onset of symptoms); m: male; f: female; n.d.: not done; and n.a.: not applicable.

SubjectsDemographic and clinical characteristics of subjects with CSF leakage
Age (years)GenderBMIRelevant comorbiditiesSymptomsOrthostatic symptomsDD (days)Prior traumatic eventOther events before disease onset

150f 24.7NoneHeadache left frontalYes30NoPhysical exertion
240f 18.4Marfan’s syndrome, Arnold-Chiari I malformation, and depressive disorderOccipital and temporal headacheYes14NoNo
343m26NoneOccipital headacheYes10NoNo
445f 23.7Migraine with auraOccipital headache, pressure feeling in left ear, diplopia, and paresthesia in left arm and legYes173NoNo
572f 14.7Subtotal colectomy, short bowel syndrome, cachexia, chronic gastritis, and numerous intestinal operations due to recurrent ileusOccipital headache, vertigoYes360NoNo
630f 21.5NoneHolocephalic headacheYes30NoNo
744m25.2Arterial hypertension Holocephalic headache, vertigo, vomiting, diplopia, and paresthesia in left arm and legYes196Fenestration of a spinal arachnoid cyst T2–4Decompression surgery due to disc herniation at the level of C5/6
823f 22.8NoneOccipital headache, vertigo, and photosensitivityYes4NoNo
944f 20.2NoneOccipital headache, vertigo, vomiting, and abducens nerve palsyYes2NoNo
1052f 23.4Cervical conisation due to cervix carcinoma and decompression surgery due to disc herniation at the level of L5/S1Holocephalic headacheProtracted202NoNo


SubjectsRadiological characteristics of subjects with CSF leakage
Method of detectionLevel of leakageCSF scintigraphyEarly detection (in the bladder)Meningeal enhancement (cranial MRI)Subdural effusions (cranial MRI)

1Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC1/2, T12Not detectedYesYesYes
2Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyL1/2, L2/3n.d.n.a.n.d.Yes
3Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC7/T1, T1/2C7/T1YesYesYes
4Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC6/7, T1/2, T11, 12, L1/2, L3/4L1/2, L3/4, T11/12YesNoNo
5Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC5/6, C6/7 (nerve root cysts L4/5, S2/3, S3)Not detectedYesYesYes
6Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC1/2, C5/6, C6/7, T12/L1n.d.n.a.YesYes
7Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelography(Weak) C4/5, T1/2Not detectedYesNoYes
8Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC7/T1, T1/2, T2/3n.d.n.a.YesYes
9Intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR myelographyC6/7, T1/2n.d.n.a.YesYes
10MRI of the spineNot detected (multiple nerve root cysts, 10 mm T1/2 and 25 mm S1/2)S1/2NoYesYes


ControlsDemographic and clinical characteristics of control subjects
Age (years)GenderBMIDiagnosisRelevant comorbidities

174f20.6Axonal polyneuropathyArterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation
245m26.6Essential tremorAlcohol dependence, recurrent depressive disorder
348m27.2Multifocal motor neuropathyAtopic dermatitis
455f25.7Cervical vertigoDisc herniation at the level of T6/7, asthma
565m31.2Demyelinating neuropathyArterial hypertension, heart failure, psoriasis, gout
645f42.0Axonal polyneuropathyArterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, and anxiety disorder
748f19.2Somatic symptom disorderDepressive disorder, anxiety disorder
831f28.7Axonal polyneuropathyBorderline personality disorder
924f20.5Somatic symptom disorderNone
1059m22.5Motor neuron diseaseNone