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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 503762, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/503762
Review Article

Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

1Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330034 Santiago, Chile
2Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN) and Graduate Program in Applied Cell and Molecular Biology, Universidad de La Frontera, 4811230 Temuco, Chile
3UC-Center for Investigational Oncology (CITO), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330034 Santiago, Chile
4Department of Pathology, Universidad de Chile, 8380453 Santiago, Chile
5Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York 10029, NY, USA
6Department of Hematology-Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330034 Santiago, Chile

Received 19 April 2015; Revised 22 July 2015; Accepted 26 July 2015

Academic Editor: Luisella Bocchio-Chiavetto

Copyright © 2015 Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade.