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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 536041, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/536041
Research Article

Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion-Deletion Polymorphism with Hypertension in Emiratis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Interaction with Obesity Status

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2Dubai Diabetes Centre, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE
3School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, P.O. Box 345050, Dubai, UAE
4Immunology Clinics, Mafraq Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE
5Landmark Nephrology and Hypertension Clinic, Talladega, AL, USA

Received 17 June 2015; Accepted 12 August 2015

Academic Editor: Fabrizia Bamonti

Copyright © 2015 Habiba Alsafar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension has been extensively studied throughout various ethnic populations but largely with inconsistent findings. We investigated these associations in Emirati population and their interaction with obesity status. Saliva samples were collected from a total of 564 Emiratis (277 T2DM and 297 healthy). DNA was extracted and the samples were genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism by a PCR based method followed by gel electrophoresis. Upon evaluation of the ACE I/D polymorphism amongst all T2DM, hypertensive patients, and respective controls regardless of obesity status, ACE DD genotype was not found to be associated with either T2DM [odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, ] or hypertension [odd ratio (OR) = 1.02, ]. When the genetic variants amongst the nonobese and obese population were analyzed separately, the risk genotype ACE DD conferred significantly increased risk of hypertension in nonobese population [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, ] but was found to be protective against the hypertension in the obese group ((OR) = 0.54, ). However, there was no effect of obesity status on the association of ACE genotypes with T2DM. The risk of hypertension associated with ACE DD is modulated by obesity status and hence future genetic association studies should take obesity into account for the interpretation of data. We also confirmed that ACE I/D polymorphism is not associated with T2DM risk in Emirati population.