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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 580474, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/580474
Review Article

The Role of Vitamin D in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Review of the Literature

Department of Natural Sciences and Public Health, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Received 21 June 2015; Revised 22 September 2015; Accepted 29 September 2015

Academic Editor: Fabrizia Bamonti

Copyright © 2015 Dimitrios Papandreou and Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The dietary reference values for Vitamin D were set primarily considering its role in bone health, but with the discovery of Vitamin D receptors throughout body tissues, new links with other health conditions are now studied, such as for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This paper shall analyze and examine all new research studies carried out, especially in 2013–2015 regarding diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Vast research has been carried out to establish strong relationship between Vitamin D serum levels, supplementation, diabetes, and CVD. However, the results from researches identified in this paper are disputable. Benefits of Vitamin D adequate levels were recognized from gestational period until later in disease development such as diabetes and/or CVD, but since not all studies are in agreement further investigation is suggested. Researches conducting large randomized controlled trials, exploring range of supplement doses, with variable baseline serum Vitamin D levels, and inclusion of array of associated parameters, are still required to conduct large-scale analysis and draw conclusion as a risk factor. Until then it is possible to conclude that maintenance of serum Vitamin D levels holds advantageous aspects in diabetic and cardiovascular conditions, and people should strive to attain them.