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Disease Markers
Volume 2015, Article ID 613536, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/613536
Review Article

Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1Genotyping and Genetic Diagnosis Unit, INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute, Accesorio 4, Avenida Menendez Pelayo, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2Research Group of Cardiometabolic and Renal Risk, INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute, Accesorio 4, Avenida Menendez Pelayo, 46010 Valencia, Spain

Received 9 August 2015; Accepted 25 August 2015

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Murdaca

Copyright © 2015 Javier Perez-Hernandez and Raquel Cortes. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women and typically manifests in multiple organs. The damage caused by this disorder is characterized by a chronic inflammatory state. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (also known as microparticles), apoptotic bodies, and exosomes, are recognized vehicles of intercellular communication, carrying autoantigens, cytokines, and surface receptors. Therefore, the evidence of EVs and their cargo as biomarkers of autoimmune disease is rapidly expanding. This review will focus on biogenesis of extracellular vesicles, their pathophysiological roles, and their potential as biomarkers and therapeutics in inflammatory disease, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus.