Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 758314, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/758314
Clinical Study

Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Is It Related to Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines?

1Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands
2MS Center Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands
3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands
4EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands

Received 22 September 2014; Revised 9 December 2014; Accepted 9 December 2014

Academic Editor: Mariann Harangi

Copyright © 2015 Arjan Malekzadeh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Compston and A. Coles, “Multiple sclerosis,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9648, pp. 1502–1517, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. R. Milo and E. Kahana, “Multiple sclerosis: geoepidemiology, genetics and the environment,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. A387–A394, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. H. J. Crayton and H. S. Rossman, “Managing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis: a multimodal approach,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 445–460, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. K. van Kessel and R. Moss-Morris, “Understanding multiple sclerosis fatigue: a synthesis of biological and psychological factors,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 583–585, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. D. Kos, E. Kerckhofs, G. Nagels, M. B. D'hooghe, and S. Ilsbroukx, “Review article: origin of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: review of the literature,” Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 91–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. R. Bakshi, “Fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis: diagnosis, impact and management,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 219–227, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Pucci, P. Branãs, R. D'Amico, G. Giuliani, A. Solari, and C. Taus, “Amantadine for fatigue in multiple sclerosis,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD002818, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Heesen, L. Nawrath, C. Reich, N. Bauer, K.-H. Schulz, and S. M. Gold, “Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: an example of cytokine mediated sickness behaviour?” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 34–39, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. I. L. Simone, A. Ceccarelli, C. Tortorella et al., “Influence of Interferon beta treatment on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 4, article 96, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. K. A. Lee, C. L. Gay, A. Lerdal, C. R. Pullinger, and B. E. Aouizerat, “Cytokine polymorphisms are associated with fatigue in adults living with HIV/AIDS,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 40, pp. 95–103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. H. J. Cho, M. Kivimäki, J. E. Bower, and M. R. Irwin, “Association of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 with new-onset fatigue in the Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1773–1783, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. F. Kapsimalis, M. Basta, G. Varouchakis, K. Gourgoulianis, A. Vgontzas, and M. Kryger, “Cytokines and pathological sleep,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 603–614, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. V. De Groot, H. Beckerman, G. J. Lankhorst, and L. M. Bouter, “How to measure comorbidity: a critical review of available methods,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. S. Linn, M. W. Linn, and L. Gurel, “Cumulative illness rating scale,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 622–626, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. J. H. M. Beurskens, U. Bültmann, I. Kant, J. H. M. M. Vercoulen, G. Bleijenberg, and G. M. H. Swaen, “Fatigue among working people: validity of a questionnaire measure,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 353–357, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. H. M. M. Vercoulen, O. R. Hommes, C. M. A. Swanink et al., “The measurement of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. A multidimensional comparison with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy subjects,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 642–649, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Beckerman, L. J. M. Blikman, M. Heine et al., “The effectiveness of aerobic training, cognitive behavioural therapy, and energy conservation management in treating MS-related fatigue: the design of the TREFAMS-ACE programme,” Trials, vol. 14, no. 1, article 250, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. J. F. Kurtzke, “Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS),” Neurology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1444–1452, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. S. Rigby, “Statistical methods in epidemiology. VI. Correlation and regression: the same or different?” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 22, no. 18, pp. 813–819, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. W. R. Twisk, Inleiding in de Toegepaste Biostatistiek, Elsevier, Gezondheidszorg, The Netherlands, 2nd edition, 2010.
  21. F. Chowdhury, A. Williams, and P. Johnson, “Validation and comparison of two multiplex technologies, Luminex and Mesoscale Discovery, for human cytokine profiling,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 340, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. D. Dabitao, J. B. Margolick, J. Lopez, and J. H. Bream, “Multiplex measurement of proinflammatory cytokines in human serum: comparison of the Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence assay and the Cytometric Bead Array,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 372, no. 1-2, pp. 71–77, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. A. Malekzadeh, V. De Groot, H. Beckerman, B. W. Van Oosten, M. A. Blankenstein, and C. Teunissen, “Challenges in multi-plex and mono-plex platforms for the discovery of inflammatory profiles in neurodegenerative diseases,” Methods, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 508–513, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. S. Greenland, “Multiple comparisons and association selection in general epidemiology,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 430–434, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. G. Giovannoni, A. J. Thompson, D. H. Miller, and E. J. Thompson, “Fatigue is not associated with raised inflammatory markers in multiple sclerosis,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 676–681, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Flachenecker, I. Bihler, F. Weber, M. Gottschalk, K. V. Toyka, and P. Rieckmann, “Cytokine mRNA expression in patients with multiple sclerosis and fatigue,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 165–169, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Malekzadeh and C. Teunissen, “Recent progress in omics-driven analysis of MS to unravel pathological mechanisms,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1001–1016, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. R. G. Elbers, M. B. Rietberg, E. E. H. van Wegen et al., “Self-report fatigue questionnaires in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke: a systematic review of measurement properties,” Quality of Life Research, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 925–944, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. M. Maggio, J. M. Guralnik, D. L. Longo, and L. Ferrucci, “Interleukin-6 in aging and chronic disease: a magnificent pathway,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 575–584, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. P. Stowe, M. K. Peek, M. P. Cutchin, and J. S. Goodwin, “Plasma cytokine levels in a population-based study: relation to age and ethnicity,” Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 429–433, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. R. A. Gadient and U. H. Otten, “Interleukin-6 (IL-6)—a molecule with both beneficial and destructive potentials,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 379–390, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Rohleder, M. Aringer, and M. Boentert, “Role of interleukin-6 in stress, sleep, and fatigue,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1261, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. M. Sorenson, L. Janusek, and H. Mathews, “Psychological stress and cytokine production in multiple sclerosis: correlation with disease symptomatology,” Biological Research for Nursing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 226–233, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. C. Schubert, S. Hong, L. Natarajan, P. J. Mills, and J. E. Dimsdale, “The association between fatigue and inflammatory marker levels in cancer patients: a quantitative review,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 413–427, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. D. Lindqvist, E. Kaufman, L. Brundin, S. Hall, Y. Surova, and O. Hansson, “Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease—correlations with inflammatory cytokines in serum,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47387, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. P. K. Stys, G. W. Zamponi, J. van Minnen, and J. J. G. Geurts, “Will the real multiple sclerosis please stand up?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 507–514, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus