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Disease Markers
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 864370, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/864370
Review Article

Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection

School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research (CTIR), University of Birmingham Laboratories, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK

Received 14 June 2015; Accepted 9 August 2015

Academic Editor: Silvia Persichilli

Copyright © 2015 Sebastian T. Lugg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection.