Research Article

Interplay between Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, and Interleukins in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Figure 1

Median of serum total active MMP-9 and MMP-2, in RRMS patients, OND controls, and healthy donors and CSF active MMP-9 and MMP-2 in RRMS patients and OND controls. Serum levels of total active MMP-9 were statistically different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis; H(2) = 15.45, ) and CSF active MMP-9 levels were elevated in RRMS patients compared to OND patients. (a) Serum concentrations of total active MMP-9 were not different among RRMS (median (IQR): 552 (318–841) ng/mL) and OND (492 (330–737) ng/mL) patients; whereas they were higher (Mann Whitney; and ) in RRMS and OND patients when compared to HC (363 (216–482) ng/mL). (b) Serum levels of active MMP-2 were not different between RRMS patients (25.2 (13.1–48.1) ng/mL), OND patients (26.2 (15.8–52.5) ng/mL), and HC (25.8 (21.8–30.7) ng/mL). (c) CSF amounts of active MMP-9 were more increased in RRMS (0.084 (0.040–0.165) ng/mL) than in OND (0.046 (0.027–0.113) ng/mL) patients (Mann Whitney; ). (d) CSF levels of active MMP-2 were not different between RRMS (5.1 (2.7–10.4) ng/mL) and OND (4.7 (2.3–11.4) ng/mL) controls. IQR: interquartile range; HC: healthy controls; MMP: matrix metalloproteinase; RRMS: relapsing-remitting MS; OND: other neurologic disorders; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid.