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Research Article

Elevated Plasma α-Defensins (HNP1–3) Levels Correlated with IgA1 Glycosylation and Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy

Table 1

Clinical and laboratory data for IgAN patients with different plasma α-defensins levels.

All patientsPatients with low α-defensins plasma levels1Patients with high -defensins plasma levels2P value

Age (years)32.7 ± 10.532.5 ± 10.733.5 ± 9.80.614
Gender (male/female, %)86 (50.9)/83 (49.1)67 (51.1)/64 (48.9)19 (50.0)/19 (50.0)0.901
SBP (mmHg)123.9 ± 16.9124.8 ± 17.8120.7 ± 13.30.184
DBP (mmHg)79.5 ± 13.280.0 ± 13.877.8 ± 10.70.350
Neutrophil count (109/L)4.62 ± 2.004.49 ± 2.075.08 ± 1.710.147
Prodromal infection (%)127 (75.1)/42 (24.9)98 (74.8)/33 (25.2)29 (76.3)/9 (23.7)0.850
CRP (%)112 (66.3)/7 (4.1)82 (62.6)/5 (3.8)30 (78.9)/2 (5.3)0.918
ESR (mm/1st h)18.1 ± 17.717.5 ± 16.919.8 ± 20.40.514
TG (mmol/L)1.93 ± 1.511.98 ± 1.601.79 ± 1.110.499
TCHOL (mmol/L)5.03 ± 1.504.98 ± 1.465.18 ± 1.6630.457
HDL (mmol/L)1.21 ± 0.571.23 ± 0.621.14 ± 0.330.384
LDL (mmol/L)2.89 ± 0.982.83 ± 0.903.09 ± 1.190.153
Hyperlipidemia (%)66 (39.1)/103 (60.9)51 (38.9)/80 (61.1)15 (39.5)/23 (60.5)0.952
Uric acid (μmol/L)356.7 ± 118.3361.5 ± 119.0340.2 ± 115.90.330
Scr (μmol/L)104.8 ± 65.6106.4 ± 71.699.3 ± 39.10.556
eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)381.4 ± 27.880.9 ± 27.883.2 ± 28.20.654
Stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 CKD (%)50 (29.6), 67 (39.6), 34 (20.1), 2 (1.2)40 (30.5), 60 (45.8), 30 (22.9), 1 (0.8)10 (26.3), 7 (18.4), 4 (10.5), 1 (2.6)0.224
Gd-IgA1 (U/mL, median, IQR)303.86 (231.43–396.02)318.56 (242.80–405.67)236.98 (203.10–350.01)0.036
Total IgA (μg/mL, median, IQR)2630.0 (2153.5–3333.5)2658.0 (2167.0–3347.0)2570.5 (2029.3–3365.3)0.565
Plasma IgA1 (μg/mL, median, IQR)169.64 (138.29–207.57)164.3 (135.3–206.4)187.56 (148.72–216.46)0.318
Initial proteinuria (g/day)1.98 ± 1.901.89 ± 1.652.32 ± 2.580.219
Urinary RBC (/)286 ± 537318 ± 599184 ± 2190.181
Gross hematuria (%)129 (76.3)/40 (23.7)99 (75.6)/32 (24.4)30 (78.9)/8 (21.1)0.667
24-hour UTP (g/day)1.14 ± 1.061.13 ± 1.081.16 ± 1.020.886
Histological grading, I, II, III, IV, V4 (%) 17 (10.1), 0 (0), 58 (34.3), 71 (42.0), 23 (13.6)10 (7.6), 0 (0), 43 (32.8), 58 (44.3), 20 (15.3)7 (18.4), 0 (0), 15 (39.5), 13 (34.2), 3 (7.9)0.129
Oxford classification
 M (%)54 (32.0), 112 (66.3)38 (29.0)/92 (70.2)16 (42.1)/20 (52.6)0.085
 E (%)60 (35.5), 106 (62.7)45 (34.4)/85 (64.9)15 (39.5)/21 (55.3)0.436
 S (%)45 (26.6), 121 (71.6)36 (27.5)/94 (71.8)9 (23.7)/27 (71.1)0.748
 T (%)109 (64.5), 36 (21.3), 21 (12.4)86 (65.6), 28 (21.4), 16 (12.2)23 (60.5), 8 (22.2), 5 (13.2)0.959
Therapy
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs (%)4 (2.4)/165 (97.6)3 (2.3)/128 (97.7)1 (2.6)/37 (97.4)0.903
 Prednisone (%)79 (46.7)/90 (53.3)65 (49.6)/66 (50.4)14 (36.8)/24 (63.2)0.165

SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; CRP: C-reactive protein; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; TG: triglycerides; TCHOL: total cholesterol; HDL: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Scr: serum creatinine; eGFR: estimate glomerular filtration rate; CKD: chronic kidney disease; 24-hour UTP: 24-hour total urine protein; Gd-IgA1: galactose-deficient IgA1; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker.
1Low plasma α-defensins levels were defined as levels below 78.42 ng/mL. 2High plasma α-defensins levels were defined as levels above 78.42 ng/mL. 3eGFR was calculated based on MDRD formula modified population. 4Histological grading was classified according to pathological proposed by Haas.

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