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Disease Markers
Volume 2016, Article ID 8205836, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8205836
Review Article

Molecular Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: Novel Potential Indicators of Prognosis and Treatment Outcomes

1Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, 3-1-3 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8431, Japan
2Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 117-003, Japan

Received 17 September 2015; Revised 29 December 2015; Accepted 29 December 2015

Academic Editor: Ja Hyeon Ku

Copyright © 2016 Masayoshi Nagata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Although many clinical and molecular markers for predicting outcomes in bladder cancer (BC) have been reported, their application in clinical practice remains unclear. Bladder carcinogenesis has two distinct molecular pathways that direct the development of BC. FGFR3 mutations are common in low-grade BC, while TP53 mutation or loss of RB1 is associated with muscle-invasive BC. However, no tissue-based gene markers confirmed by prospective large-scale trials in BC have been used in clinical practice. Micro-RNA analyses of BC tissue revealed that miR-145 and miR- function as tumor suppressors, whereas miR-183 and miR-17-5p function as oncogenic miRNAs. In liquid biopsy, circulating tumor cells (CTC), exosomes, or cell-free RNA is extracted from the peripheral blood samples of cancer patients to analyze cancer prognosis. It was reported that detection of CTC was associated with poor prognostic factors. However, application of liquid biopsy in BC treatment is yet to be explored. Although several cell-free RNAs, such as miR-497 in plasma or miR-214 in urine, could be promising novel circulating biomarkers, they are used only for diagnosing BC as the case that now stands. Here, we discuss the application of novel biomarkers in evaluating and measuring BC outcomes.