Table 1: Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study group () with distribution according to clinical diagnosis—median values and 1–3 quartiles.

Control groupSepsis groupELGAN groupNEC groupRotavirus groupAWD group

N14122412163
Gender (F/M)6/82/108/168/45/112/1
Birth weight (g)3260 (2850–3440)3208 (2505–3465)1120 (800–1400)1955 (1100–2470)3000 (2495–3690)2250 (2100–2700)
Body weight (g)3260 (2850–3400)3208 (2505–3465)1120 (800–1400)1962 (1115–2585)3302 (2790–3805)2270 (2190–2610)
1’Apgar (pts)9 (8–10)9 (7–10)5 (3–6)6 (5–8)10 (8–10)6 (2–8)
5’Apgar (pts)10 (9-10)10 (7–10)5 (4–7)8 (7-8)10 (9-10)7 (7-8)
GA (wks)39 (37–39)38 (36–40)28 (25–31)33 (29–36)38 (36–39)37 (36–38)
DOL5 (2–11)10 (3–18)2 (1–5)7 (4–25)24 (17–27)3 (2–5)
MOD (SD/CS)9/58/46/183/97/90/3
Zonulin (ng/ml)3.5 (2.7–4.8)3.5 (2.8–4.3)3.8 (2.0–5.4)8.6 (3.8–11.9)36.0 (26.0–43.2)20.3 (17.7–28.2)
NTISS (pts)3 (2–5)18 (13–26)24 (21–26)23 (18–25)8 (7–9)21 (19–23)
CRP (mg/dl)0.2 (0.2–1.6)52.1 (15.8–94.1)3.1 (0.9–9.5)22.8 (6.1–59.1)0.7 (0.2–2.1)47.5 (1.9–58.2)
PCT (ng/ml)0.1 (0.1–0.2)9.0 (2.2–14.2)5.7 (2.7–10.6)2.2 (0.7–12.0)0.1 (0.1–0.3)2.1 (0.9–3.3)
WBC (1000/μl)11.7 (9.9–13.0)10.8 (5.7–21.0)16.6 (9.6–23.1)13.3 (11.3–19.8)10.8 (8.1–115)10.3 (7.6–24.2)
PLT (1000/μl)277 (185–322)174 (86–258)133 (92–187)226 (166–359)386 (310–484)230 (213–263)

ELGAN: extremely low gestational age newborn; NEC: necrotizing enterocolitis; AWD: abdominal wall defect; N: number; F: female; M: male; g: grams; pts: points; GA: gestational age; wks: weeks; DOL: day of life; MOD: mode of delivery; SD: spontaneous delivery; CS: cesarean section. Statistical significance versus control group. ; ; .