Review Article

Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

Table 1

Vitamin D supplementation and arterial stiffness studies.

AuthorsYear of publicationVitamin D doseFollow- upParticipantsResults

Forouhi et al. [21] 2016100,000 IU/month vitamin D2 or D34 months340 nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia or positive diabetes risk scoreModest reduction in PWV

Aytaç et al. [22]2016Single dose of 300,000 oral cholecalciferol12 weeks41 children with chronic kidney diseaseSignificant lower arterial stiffness

Munisamy et al. [23]20160.25 μg alfacalcidol/day6 months28 type 2 diabetic nephropathy patientsDecrease of arterial stiffness

Zaleski et al. [24]20154,000 IU/day versus 400 IU/day6 months40 vitamin D deficient adults with prehypertensionHigh dose of vitamin D lower arterial stiffness

McGreevy et al. [25]201550,000 IU or 100,000 IU D38 weeks119 vitamin D deficient subjectsSignificant decrease in augmentation index in the high dose group

Gepner et al. [26]2015400 IU or 2,500 IU vitamin D6 months98 healthy postmenopausal native American womenNo decrease of arterial stiffness

Ryu et al. [27]2014Cholecalciferol 2.000 IU/day24 weeks40 type 2 diabetesNo beneficial effect on arterial stiffness, cardiovascular risk, insulin resistance

Chitalia et al. [28]2014300,000 IU cholecalciferol at baseline and 8 weeks16 weeks26 nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney diseaseImprovement of endothelial function, no change of arterial stiffness

Martins et al. [29]2014100,000 IU monthly3 months130 overweight and obese African Americans with elevated blood pressureDecreased level of inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators of arterial stiffness, but not a decrease of arterial stiffness

Levin et al. [30]20145,000 IU 25 vitamin D and 0.5 μg 1,25 vitamin D 3 times/week in oral suspension for 6 months9 months128 stable chronic kidney disease patientsNo results published yet

Mose et al. [31]20143,000 IU cholecalciferol/day6 months50 chronic dialysis patientsNo decrease of 24-hour blood pressure, arterial stiffness or cardiac function

Klop et al.
2014100,000 IU vitamin D3Single dose6 men and 6 womenReduction of augmentation index, reduced postprandial leukocyte activation

Stricker et al. [4]2012100,000 IU vitamin D3Single dose62 elderly patients with peripheral arterial disease and low vitamin D levelsNo influence on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, coagulation and inflammation parameters

Dong et al. [33]20102,000 IU/day16 weeks25 Normotensive black boys and girlsSignificant decrease in carotid-femoral PWV