Review Article

Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

Table 3

Effect of vitamin E and C supplementation and arterial stiffness in human subjects.

AuthorsYear of publicationFollow-upDose of vitamin E and CStudy population Results

Vucinovic et al. [37] 20151 week600 IU vitamin E12 healthy malesHyperoxia resulted in increased augmentation index and lipid peroxides and decreased nitrite in placebo; not in the antioxidant group
1,000 mg vitamin C
600 mg alpha-lipoic acid

Hildreth et al.
2014Infusion of 7.5 g ascorbic acid97 healthy women (premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal)Improvement of arterial compliance in late perimenopausal and postmenopausal women

Ives et al.
2014 90 minutesOral antioxidant cocktail30 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseVascular dysfunction mediated by an altered redox balance can be mitigated by an oral antioxidant; the antioxidant cocktail improved also PWV 
(1) Dose: 300 mg alpha lipoic acid, 500 mg vitamin C, 200 IU vitamin E
(2) Dose: the same doses of alpha lipoic acid and vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E

Veringa et al.
201218 monthsPravastatin supplemented with vitamin E after 6 months and homocysteine lowering therapy after other 6 months93 chronic kidney disease patientsSignificant improvement of compliance and distensibility in the common carotid and femoral artery

Shargorodsky et al. [16]20106 months1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, 120 mg co-enzyme Q, 200 mcg selenium70 patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors (at least 2)Significant increase of large and small vessel elasticity

Rasool et al.
20082 months50, 100 and 200 mg/day tocotrienol rich vitamin E36 healthy menImprovement of arterial compliance
after 100 and 200 mg/day tocotrienol rich vitamin E; NO effect on serum lipids

Kelly et al.
20088 hoursOral dose of 2 g vitamin C26 healthy human volunteersNo effect on augmentation index and markers of oxidative stress

Plantinga et al. [43] 20078 weeks400 IU vitamin E30 male with essential hypertensionBeneficial effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and arterial stiffness
1 g vitamin C

Katayama et al. [44]20042 hoursSingle dose 2 g vitamin C before smoking17 healthy male volunteersSignificant reduction of smoking-induced elevation of brachial-ankle PWV

Mullan et al.
2004120 minutes2 g i.v. ascorbic acid12 healthy menPretreatment with ascorbic acid prevented the hyperglycemia induced increase of the central aortic pulse pressure and blood pressure

Mullan et al. [46]20024 weeksOral 500 mg ascorbic acid/day30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellituslowered blood pressure, decreased arterial stiffness

Skyrme-Jones et al.
20003 months1,000 IU/day oral vitamin E41 young diabetic subjects (type 1 diabetes mellitus)Improvement of endothelial vasodilation; no effect on systemic arterial compliance