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Disease Markers
Volume 2017, Article ID 9253495, 10 pages
Research Article

Expression Levels and Localizations of DVL3 and sFRP3 in Glioblastoma

1Laboratory of Neuro-oncology, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, Zagreb, Croatia
2Department of Biology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 3, Zagreb, Croatia
3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 10, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4University Hospital “Sisters of Charity”, Vinogradska 29, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4400 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Nives Pećina-Šlaus; rh.fem@anin

Received 20 April 2017; Accepted 14 September 2017; Published 19 October 2017

Academic Editor: Alex J. Rai

Copyright © 2017 Anja Kafka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The expression patterns of critical molecular components of Wnt signaling, sFRP3 and DVL3, were investigated in glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumors, with the aim to offer potential biomarkers. The protein expression levels and localizations in tumor tissue were revealed by immunohistochemistry and evaluated by the semiquantitative method and immunoreactivity score. Majority of glioblastomas had moderate expression levels for both DVL3 (52.4%) and sFRP3 (52.3%). Strong expression levels were observed in 23.1% and 36.0% of samples, respectively. DVL3 was localized in cytoplasm in 97% of glioblastomas, of which 44% coexpressed the protein in the nucleus. sFRP3 subcellular distribution showed that it was localized in the cytoplasm in 94% of cases. Colocalization in the cytoplasm and nucleus was observed in 50% of samples. Wilcox test indicated that the domination of the strong signal is in connection with simultaneous localization of DVL3 protein in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Patients with strong expression of DVL3 will significantly more often have the protein in the nucleus (). No significant correlation between the two proteins was established, nor were their signal strengths correlated with epidemiological parameters. Our study contributes to better understanding of glioblastoma molecular profile.