Disease Markers / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Amino Acid-Based Metabolic Panel Provides Robust Prognostic Value Additive to B-Natriuretic Peptide and Traditional Risk Factors in Heart Failure

Table 2

Comparisons of plasma amino acid concentrations between normal controls and patients at heart failure stage C (Initiation cohort).

Normal controlsHeart failure stage CUnivariateMultivariable
Amino acid (μM)VIP score()()Odds ratio (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI) value

Histidine2.2095.2 ± 17.274.1 ± 14.70.92 (0.90–0.94)0.71 (0.64–0.79)<0.001
Ornithine2.0959.7 ± 19.5101.4 ± 36.51.06 (1.05–1.07)1.07 (1.04–1.11)<0.001
Phenylalanine1.8957.0 ± 8.575.6 ± 18.81.13 (1.10–1.16)1.48 (1.31–1.68)<0.001
Aspartate1.284.2 ± 2.66.7 ± 8.61.32 (1.23–1.42)
Glutamate1.2468.3 ± 68.1137.7 ± 110.51.01 (1.009–1.02)
Glutamine1.21679.6 ± 142.5569.0 ± 173.80.995 (0.994–0.997)
Tyrosine0.9165.4 ± 13.176.2 ± 24.61.03 (1.02–1.04)
Isoleucine0.8072.1 ± 18.681.5 ± 23.01.02 (1.01–1.03)
Citrulline0.7847.3 ± 27.936.3 ± 25.70.99 (0.979–0.993)
Tryptophan0.6342.9 ± 12.447.6 ± 14.51.03 (1.01–1.04)
Lysine0.62216.9 ± 41.0234.3 ± 58.11.06 (1.05–1.07)
Serine0.47126.2 ± 31.1118.2 ± 31.60.99 (0.98–0.99)
Arginine0.4162.5 ± 21.257.4 ± 24.40.99 (0.97–0.99)
Methionine0.3325.3 ± 6.123.9 ± 8.5
Proline0.33170.9 ± 66.4182.5 ± 66.9
Asparagine0.2549.1 ± 27.945.9 ± 21.4
Valine0.19243.9 ± 54.5238.1 ± 58.8
Leucine0.11146.9 ± 41.0144.5 ± 40.9
Alanine0.10347.7 ± 112.2340.8 ± 131.1
Threonine0.10116.3 ± 28.6114.6 ± 33.6
Glycine0.09241.4 ± 72.1245.3 ± 85.2

Data are presented as . VIP: variable importance in the projection. and , compared to normal controls. Multivariable analysis was performed for the amino acids with VIP by stepwise logistic regression model (forward selection).

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