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Research Article

Amino Acid-Based Metabolic Panel Provides Robust Prognostic Value Additive to B-Natriuretic Peptide and Traditional Risk Factors in Heart Failure

Table 5

Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics in different populations defined by the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and HOP score.

LBLHHBLHLBHHHBHH
()()()()

Age (years)59.8 ± 14.563.4 ± 13.758.5 ± 13.963.1 ± 12.20.26
Male (%)151 (66.8)56 (56.6)66 (75.9)56 (64.4)0.049
LVEF (%)36.9 ± 15.230.2 ± 12.936.5 ± 16.428.5 ± 11.9†ϕ<0.001
NYHA classification ≥III216 (95.6)99 (100)86 (98.9)85 (97.7)0.06
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic123.3 ± 16.9121.6 ± 19.7120.2 ± 19.7122.1 ± 19.30.58
 Diastolic74.3 ± 13.173.4 ± 12.374.3 ± 12.274.8 ± 12.50.89
 Heart rate, beats/min77.0 ± 11.578.1 ± 13.577.9 ± 11.978.9 ± 11.90.63
Comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus (%)98 (43.4)40 (40.4)32 (36.8)32 (36.8)0.62
 Hypertension (%)145 (64.2)69 (69.7)44 (50.6)59 (67.8)0.034
 Atrial fibrillation (%)80 (35.4)27 (27.3)41 (47.1)21 (24.1)ϕ0.005
 COPD (%)27 (11.9)8 (8.1)7 (8.0)14 (16.1)0.26
 Ischemic (%)95 (42.0)51 (51.5)25 (28.7)52 (59.8)ϕ<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.2 ± 5.523.2 ± 3.727.9 ± 9.724.1 ± 3.9<0.001
Laboratory data
 Cholesterol (mg/dL)178.6 ± 45.8169.5 ± 48.3160.3 ± 36.7175.3 ± 42.40.009
 Triglyceride (mg/dL)122.9 ± 68.1115.5 ± 66.1136.6.9 ± 129.7124.9 ± 76.40.38
 LDL-C (mg/dL)113.6 ± 40.9106.2 ± 41.7101.0 ± 31.8117.0 ± 31.8§0.016
 HDL-C (mg/dL)41.4 ± 22.640.0 ± 15.135.2 ± 11.333.3 ± 11.50.001
 Serum sodium (mEq/L)139.4 ± 3.2139.2 ± 2.8138.5 ± 3.6137.7 ± 3.8†‡<0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.4 ± 2.013.0 ± 2.113.7 ± 2.312.6 ± 2.2ϕ0.002
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL)1.0 ± 0.61.2 ± 0.91.3 ± 0.81.5 ± 1.0<0.001
 Albumin (g/dL)3.7 ± 0.53.5 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.53.2 ± 05†#ϕ<0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)77.4 ± 29.263.7 ± 25.269.5 ± 21.458.6 ± 24.9†§<0.001

HB and LB indicate high and low BNP (≥750 and <750 pg/mL, respectively). HH and LH indicate high and low HOP score (≥14 and <14, respectively). COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C: low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA: New York Heart Association. and , compared to LBLH; and #, compared to HBLH; § and ϕ, compared to LBHH.

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