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Disease Markers
Volume 2018, Article ID 7010196, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7010196
Review Article

Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy and Biomarkers: Where We Are and What We Can Hope for the Future

1Optics Group, Department of Human Protein Sciences, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland
2Department of Ophthalmology, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Correspondence should be addressed to Natacha Turck; hc.eginu@kcrut.ahcatan and Mehrad Hamédani; hc.2af@inademah.darhem

Received 19 September 2017; Revised 21 December 2017; Accepted 30 January 2018; Published 15 March 2018

Academic Editor: Marco E. M. Peluso

Copyright © 2018 Natacha Turck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is the most common autoimmune disease of the orbit. It occurs more often in patients presenting with hyperthyroidism, characteristic of Graves’ disease, but may be associated with hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. The diagnosis of TAO is based on clinical orbital features, radiological criteria, and the potential association with thyroid disease. To date, there is no specific marker of the orbital disease, making the early diagnosis difficult, especially if the orbital involvement precedes the thyroid dysfunction. Summary. The goal of this review is to present the disease and combine the available data in the literature concerning investigation of TAO biomarkers. Conclusions. Despite the progress done in the understanding of TAO disease, some important pieces are still missing. Typically, for the future, major efforts have to be done in the discovery of new biomarkers, validation of the suspected candidates on multicenter cohorts with standardized methodologies, and establishment of their clinical performances on the specific clinical application fields in order to improve not only the management of the TAO patients but also the therapeutic options and follow-up.