Disease Markers https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. MicroRNAs Involvement in Radioresistance of Head and Neck Cancer Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:58:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/8245345/ Resistance to the ionizing radiation is a current problem in the treatment and clinical management of various cancers including head and neck cancer. There are several biological and molecular mechanisms described to be responsible for resistance of the tumors to radiotherapy. Among them, the main mechanisms include alterations in intracellular pathways involved in DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. It has been found that regulation of these complex processes is often controlled by microRNAs. MicroRNAs are short endogenous RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally modulate gene expression and their deregulated expression has been observed in many tumors including head and neck cancer. Specific expression patterns of microRNAs have also been shown to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in head and neck cancer. Therefore, microRNAs present promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets that might overcome resistance to radiation and improve prognosis of head and neck cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the functional role of microRNAs in radioresistance of cancer with special focus on head and neck cancer. Parwez Ahmad, Jiri Sana, Marek Slavik, Pavel Slampa, Pavel Smilek, and Ondrej Slaby Copyright © 2017 Parwez Ahmad et al. All rights reserved. Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Secretion by Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Linked to Intracellular Expression Levels, Occurs Independently of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway and HSP27’s Phosphorylation Status, and Is Mediated by Exosome Liberation Thu, 23 Feb 2017 09:20:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/1575374/ The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC) patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock. Intra- and extracellular HSP27 amounts were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA. Protein secretion was blocked by brefeldin A and the impact of the HSP27 phosphorylation status was analyzed overexpressing HSP27 phosphomutants. The present study demonstrated that HSP27 secretion by OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells depends on intracellular HSP27 concentrations. Moreover, HSP27 secretion is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum secretory pathway and HSP27 phosphorylation. Notably, analysis of OC cell-born exosomes not only confirmed the concentration-dependent correlation of HSP27 expression and secretion but also demonstrated a concentration-dependent incorporation of HSP27 protein into exosomes. Thus, secreted HSP27 may become more important as an extracellular factor which controls the tumor microenvironment and might be a noninvasive biomarker. Matthias B. Stope, Gerd Klinkmann, Karoline Diesing, Dominique Koensgen, Martin Burchardt, and Alexander Mustea Copyright © 2017 Matthias B. Stope et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells in Urothelial Cancers and Clinical Correlations: Comparison of Two Methods Wed, 22 Feb 2017 06:16:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/3414910/ Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are identified exploiting their protein/gene expression patterns or distinct size compared to blood cells. Data on CTC in bladder cancer (BC) are still scarce. We comparatively analyzed CTC enrichment by AdnaTest ProstateCancerSelect (AT) and ScreenCell®Cyto (SC) kits, combined with identification by EPCAM, MUC1, and ERBB2 expression and by cytological criteria, respectively, in 19 nonmetastatic () and 47 metastatic (M+) BC patients, at baseline (T0) and during treatment (T1). At T0, CTC positivity rates by AT were higher in M+ compared to M0 cases (57.4% versus 25%, p = 0.041). EPCAM was detected in 75% of CTC-positive samples by AT, showing increasing expression levels from T0 to T1 (median (interquartile range, IQR): 0.18 (0.07–0.42) versus 0.84 (0.33–1.84), ) in M+ cases. Overall, CTC positivity by SC was around 80% regardless of clinical setting and time point of analysis, except for a lower occurrence at T1 in M0 cases. At T0, circulating tumour microemboli were more frequently (25% versus 8%) detected and more numerous in M+ compared to M0 patients. The approach used for CTC detection impacts the outcome of CTC studies. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical validity of AT and SC in specific BC clinical contexts. Emanuela Fina, Andrea Necchi, Stefano Bottelli, Carolina Reduzzi, Sara Pizzamiglio, Chiara Iacona, Maria Grazia Daidone, Paolo Verderio, and Vera Cappelletti Copyright © 2017 Emanuela Fina et al. All rights reserved. Circulating miR-132-3p as a Candidate Diagnostic Biomarker for Malignant Mesothelioma Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9280170/ The use of circulating microRNAs as biomarkers has opened new opportunities for diagnosis of cancer because microRNAs exhibit tumor-specific expression profiles. The aim of this study was the identification of circulating microRNAs in human plasma as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. For discovery, TaqMan Low Density Array Human MicroRNA Cards were used to analyze 377 microRNAs in plasma samples from 21 mesothelioma patients and 21 asbestos-exposed controls. For verification, individual TaqMan microRNA assays were used for quantitative real-time PCR in plasma samples from 22 mesothelioma patients and 44 asbestos-exposed controls. The circulating miR-132-3p showed different expression levels between mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed controls. For discrimination, sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 61% were calculated. Circulating miR-132-3p in plasma was not affected by hemolysis and no impact of age or smoking status on miR-132-3p levels could be observed. For the combination of miR-132-3p with the previously described miR-126, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 86% were calculated. The results of this study indicate that miR-132-3p might be a new promising diagnostic biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. It is indicated that the combination of miR-132-3p with other individual biomarkers improves the biomarker performance. Daniel G. Weber, Katarzyna Gawrych, Swaantje Casjens, Alexander Brik, Martin Lehnert, Dirk Taeger, Beate Pesch, Jens Kollmeier, Torsten T. Bauer, Georg Johnen, and Thomas Brüning Copyright © 2017 Daniel G. Weber et al. All rights reserved. Association of Circulating IGFBP1 Level with the Severity of Coronary Artery Lesions in Patients with Unstable Angina Mon, 20 Feb 2017 07:59:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/1917291/ Aims. Local IGFBP1 level was reported to affect the development of coronary artery plaque. This study investigated the association of circulating IGFBP1 level with the severity of coronary artery lesions in patients with unstable angina. Materials and Methods. In 112 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed unstable angina, admitted from July 2014 to July 2015, we studied the correlations of circulating IGFBP1 and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Results. All patients underwent scheduled coronary angiography, and 67 cases were diagnosed with critical and 45 with noncritical CAD. Of the 67 critical CAD patients, 41 (61.19%) presented with multivessel and 26 (38.81%) with single-vessel lesions. IGFBP1 levels were higher in patients with multivessel than those with single-vessel lesions. Moreover, the IGFBP1 level was positively correlated with the GRACE score. Among clinical variables, the IGFBP1 level was correlated with HDL-C. IGFBP1 alone (cutoff 20.86 ng/ml) demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.448 and specificity of 0.933 in predicting CAD. Combination of IGFBP1 and HDL-C had a sensitivity of 0.821 and specificity of 0.800 in predicting CAD. Conclusions. Circulating IGFBP1 level positively correlated with the severity of CAD. IGFBP1, when combined with HDL-C, might be useful in screening for high risk CAD patients. Wei Zheng, Yayu Lai, Peng Jin, Wenzhu Gu, Qi Zhou, and Xiaojing Wu Copyright © 2017 Wei Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of CYFRA 21-1 in the Cerebrospinal Fluid for Leptomeningeal Metastasis Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/2467870/ Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology has low sensitivity for leptomeningeal metastasis (LM); thus, new markers are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of LM. We measured carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) in paired samples of CSF and serum from patients with LM and patients with nonmalignant neurological diseases (NMNDs) as controls. Receiver operating curve analysis was performed to assess their diagnostic accuracy for LM. In patients with NMNDs, CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels in the CSF were significantly lower than the serum levels. In patients with LM, there was no significant difference between the CSF and serum CEA levels, whereas the CYFRA 21-1 levels were significantly higher in the CSF than the serum. CSF/serum quotients of CYFRA 21-1 were higher than those of CEA in patients with LM and patients with NMNDs. CSF CYFRA 21-1 and CSF/serum quotient of CYFRA 21-1 had high accuracy for differentiating LM from NMNDs that was similar to CSF CEA and CSF/serum quotient of CYFRA 21-1, whereas serum CYFRA 21-1 is of poor diagnostic value. Measurement of CSF CYFRA 21-1 should not be overlooked in patients with suspected LM, even if the serum CYFRA 21-1 level is within normal limits. Zhen Zhang, Chenglin Tian, Qiang Shi, Jing Hao, Na Zhao, and Zhijie Liu Copyright © 2017 Zhen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Value of MiR-219-1, MiR-938, MiR-34b/c, and MiR-218 Polymorphisms for Gastric Cancer Susceptibility and Prognosis Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/4731891/ Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most prominent global cancer-related health threats. Genes play a key role in the precise mechanisms of gastric cancer. SNPs in mi-RNAs could affect mRNA expression and then affect the risk and prognosis of GC. Firstly, we have decided to perform a case-control study which included 897 GC patients and 992 controls to evaluate the association of miR-219-1 rs213210, miR-938 rs2505901, miR-34b/c rs4938723, and miR-218 rs11134527 polymorphisms with gastric cancer susceptibility. Secondly, among the 897 GC patients above, 755 cases underwent a radical operation, without distant metastasis and with negative surgical margins included in the survival analysis to evaluate the association of the four SNPs above with gastric cancer prognosis. The C/T or C/C genotypes of rs213210 were related to a lower GC risk (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62–0.93, ) compared to the T/T genotype. Rs11134527 in miR-218 was associated with GC survival, and the G/A and G/G genotypes of rs11134527 resulted in a decreased risk of death when compared with the A/A genotype (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61–0.95, ). This study found that miR-219-1 rs213210 polymorphism was associated with GC susceptibility and rs11134527 in miR-218 was positively correlated with GC prognosis. Yanhua Wu, Zhifang Jia, Donghui Cao, Chuan Wang, Xing Wu, Lili You, Simin Wen, Yuchen Pan, Xueyuan Cao, and Jing Jiang Copyright © 2017 Yanhua Wu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of Autoantibodies against Ezrin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/2534648/ Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), one of the most common malignancies worldwide, is a highly aggressive and homogeneous entity occurring in esophageal squamous epithelium, and a reliable noninvasive test for early detection is needed. A recent study showed that serum autoantibodies against Ezrin could be detected in patients with pancreatic cancer. Here, we assessed whether autoantibodies against Ezrin could have diagnostic relevance for early ESCC. We analyzed autoantibodies against Ezrin in sera of 98 normal controls and 149 patients with ESCC. Ezrin autoantibodies levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that higher levels of autoantibodies against Ezrin were observed in serum samples from patients with ESCC than in serum from normal controls (). Based on a cutoff value of 0.319, the sensitivity and specificity of autoantibodies against Ezrin for diagnosis of ESCC were 27.5% and 95.9%, respectively. Compared with normal controls, the positive rate of autoantibodies against Ezrin was significantly elevated in patients with early-stage ESCC (). Moreover, there was no significant difference of positivity of autoantibodies against Ezrin in ESCC patients categorized according to age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasion depth, tumor site, histological grade, lymph node status, or tumor stage. Our study indicates that the presence of autoantibodies against Ezrin is significantly associated with ESCC. Lan Li, Ming Liu, Jian-Bang Lin, Xin-Bin Hong, Wen-Xia Chen, Hong Guo, Li-Yan Xu, Yi-Wei Xu, En-Min Li, and Yu-Hui Peng Copyright © 2017 Lan Li et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Prognostic and Predictive Significance of Circulating MicroRNAs in Ovarian Cancer Patients Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/3098542/ Ovarian cancer patients are recognized with poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify microRNAs in plasma for predicting response to treatment and outcome. We have investigated microRNAs in plasma from ovarian cancer patients enrolled in a large multicenter study (ICON7), investigating the effect of adding bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy in patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients with different histology, grade, and FIGO stages were included () in this study. Screening of 754 unique microRNAs was performed in the discovery phase () using TaqMan Low Density Arrays. The results were validated using single assays and RT-qPCR. Low levels of miR-200b, miR-1274A , and miR-141 were significantly associated with better survival, confirmed with log-rank test in the validation set. The level of miR-1274A correlated with outcome was especially pronounced in the high-grade serous tumors. Interestingly, low level of miR-200c was associated with 5-month prolongation of PFS when treated with bevacizumab compared to standard chemotherapy. We found prognostic significance of miR-200b, miR-141, and miR-1274A in all histological types, where miR-1274A may be a specific marker in high-grade serous tumors. The level of miR-200c may be predictive of effect of treatment with bevacizumab. However, this needs further validation. Ann Rita Halvorsen, Gunnar Kristensen, Andy Embleton, Cybil Adusei, Maria Pilar Barretina-Ginesta, Philip Beale, and Åslaug Helland Copyright © 2017 Ann Rita Halvorsen et al. All rights reserved. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Reveals Abnormal Hemodynamics in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex of Menopausal Depression Patients Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/1695930/ Background/Objective. Menopausal depression (MD) is characterized by depressive symptoms along with hormonal fluctuations. We investigate brain function alteration between major depressive disorder (MDD) and MD. Methods. The difference in oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) for the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was compared retrospectively among 90 females presented with 30 MDD, 30 MD, and 30 healthy controls (HCs) using verbal fluency task (VFT) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results. We observed a significant difference in Oxy-Hb alteration in the left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) using VFT with NIRS (channel 18, ) between the MD and MDD groups. A significant difference in Oxy-Hb levels was observed among the three groups in the bilateral DLPFC (channels 18, 27, 33, 39, 41, and 45; ). Compared to the HCs, the MD group presented lower Oxy-Hb activation in the right DLPFC (channel 41; ) and the left DLPFC (channels 18, 39, and 45; ), and the MDD group presented lower Oxy-Hb activation in the right DLPFC (channels 27, 33, and 41; ) and the left DLPFC (channels 39 and 45; ). Conclusion. Abnormal hemodynamics of the left DLPFC can differentiate MD from MDD by NIRS. Xiang-Yun Ma, Yong-Jun Wang, Bo Xu, Kun Feng, Gao-Xiang Sun, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Xiao-Min Liu, Chen-Yu Shen, Xia-Jin Ren, Jing-Jing Sun, and Po-Zi Liu Copyright © 2017 Xiang-Yun Ma et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of tagSNPs in CXCL16 Gene on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in a Chinese Han Population Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9463272/ CXCL16 has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). Nonetheless, the role of the CXCL16 polymorphisms on MI pathogenesis is far to be elucidated. We herein genotyped four tagSNPs in CXCL16 gene (rs2304973, rs1050998, rs3744700, and rs8123) in 275 MI patients and 670 control subjects, aimed at probing into the impact of CXCL16 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to MI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that C allele (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.03–1.66, and ) and CC genotype (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.06, and ) of rs1050998 were associated with increased MI risk; and C allele (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.60–0.98, and ) of rs8123 exhibited decreased MI risk, while the other two tagSNPs had no significant effect. Consistently, the haplotype rs2304973T-rs1050998C-rs3744700G-rs8123A containing the C allele of rs1050998 and A allele of rs8123 exhibited elevated MI risk (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.02–1.96, and ). Further stratified analysis unveiled a more apparent association with MI risk among younger subjects (≤60 years old). Taken together, our results provided the first evidence that CXCL16 polymorphisms significantly impacted MI risk in Chinese subjects. Shun Xu, Jie Cheng, Meng-yun Cai, Li-li Liang, Jin-ming Cen, Xi-li Yang, Can Chen, Xinguang Liu, and Xing-dong Xiong Copyright © 2017 Shun Xu et al. All rights reserved. Differential Site-Based Expression of Pentose Phosphate Pathway-Related Proteins among Breast Cancer Metastases Thu, 02 Feb 2017 06:23:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/7062517/ Purpose. We aimed to investigate the expression of pentose phosphate pathway- (PPP-) related proteins in metastatic breast cancer and its relationship with clinicopathologic factors. Methods. Tissue samples from 126 metastatic breast cancers were included in a tissue microarray. Expression of PPP-related proteins [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2)] was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results. G6PDH () and cytoplasmic NRF2 () showed the highest expression in brain metastases. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) positivity was associated with G6PDH () and cytoplasmic NRF2 () positivity. A high Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was correlated with nuclear NRF2 positivity (), and HER-2-positive luminal B type was associated with G6PDH positivity (). On multivariate Cox analysis, independent risk factors of short overall survival were 6PGL positivity in bone metastasis (HR 4.180, 95% CI 1.160–15.06, ) and low Ki-67 LI in lung metastasis (HR 11.853, 95% CI 1.841–76.30, ). Conclusion. Differential expression of PPP-related proteins correlated with different prognoses and metastatic sites, with the highest expression in brain metastases, and could be a potential therapeutic target. Yoon Jin Cha, Woo Hee Jung, and Ja Seung Koo Copyright © 2017 Yoon Jin Cha et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Concentrations of SERPINE2/Protease Nexin-1 and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Serum of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tue, 31 Jan 2017 13:42:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/4962137/ Introduction. SERPINE2 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are proteins with anticoagulant properties which could promote solid tumor growth. However, their role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer has not been determined. Materials and Methods. The aim of this study was to assess serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in a group of 36 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and a group of 19 subjects with multinodular nontoxic goiter (MNG). The control group (CG) consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected one day before surgery. Serum SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations were measured using specific ELISA methods. Results. Significantly higher concentrations of SERPINE2 and SLPI were found in patients with PTC as compared with MNG and controls. Positive correlation was found between SERPINE2 and SLPI concentrations in PTC patients. The levels of SERPINE2 and SLPI did not differ significantly between MNG and healthy controls. Conclusions. Our results indicate that SERPINE2 and SLPI play a significant role in the development of papillary thyroid cancer and imply that the evaluation of serum concentrations of both anticoagulant molecules may be considered as additional marker for the differentiation of malignancies during the preoperative diagnosis of patients with thyroid gland tumors. Tomasz Stępień, Mateusz Brożyna, Krzysztof Kuzdak, Ewelina Motylewska, Jan Komorowski, Henryk Stępień, and Hanna Ławnicka Copyright © 2017 Tomasz Stępień et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of the Expression Level of Intratumoral Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase on Chemotherapy Sensitivity and Survival of Patients in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Tue, 31 Jan 2017 10:05:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9202676/ The potential impact that the intratumoral expression level of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) has on chemotherapy sensitivity and long-term survival for gastric cancer (GC) patients remains controversial; therefore, this study seeks to clarify this issue. Our meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. In vitro drug sensitivity tests, correlation coefficients between sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and expression levels of intratumoral DPD were used as effective indexes to analyse. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used as endpoints for patient outcome, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were noted as measures of effect. There were 15 eligible studies including 1805 patients for the final analysis. The analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the expression level of intratumoral DPD activity, DPD mRNA levels, and sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, with high expression levels of intratumoral DPD resulting in low sensitivity to 5-FU. However, no matter what therapeutic regimens were used, there was no significant difference for patient outcomes between high and low DPD expression groups, either in OS or in PFS. In conclusion, high levels of intratumoral DPD expression have a negative impact on sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, but no prognostic value for long-term survival was uncovered. Cong Zhang, Hongpeng Liu, Bin Ma, Yongxi Song, Peng Gao, Yingying Xu, Dehao Yu, and Zhenning Wang Copyright © 2017 Cong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of IL-18 and IL-10 Polymorphisms on Tacrolimus Elimination in Chinese Lung Transplant Patients Thu, 26 Jan 2017 14:28:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/7834035/ Aims. The influence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics had been described in liver and kidney transplantation. The expression of cytokines varied in different kinds of transplantation. The influence of IL-10 and IL-18 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic parameters of tacrolimus remains unclear in lung transplantation. Methods. 51 lung transplant patients at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital were included. IL-18 polymorphisms (rs5744247 and rs1946518), IL-10 polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800872, and rs3021097), and CYP3A5 rs776746 were genotyped. Dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio, mg/kg body weight) in lung transplant patients during the first 4 postoperative weeks were calculated. Results. IL-18 rs5744247 allele C and rs1946518 allele A were associated with fast tacrolimus metabolism. Combined analysis showed that the numbers of low IL-18 mRNA expression alleles had positive correlation with tacrolimus C/D ratios in lung transplant recipients. The influence of IL-18 polymorphisms on tacrolimus C/D ratios was observed in CYP3A5 expresser recipients, but not in CYP3A5 nonexpresser recipients. No clinical significance of tacrolimus C/D ratios difference of IL-10 polymorphisms was found in our data. Conclusions. IL-18 polymorphisms may influence tacrolimus elimination in lung transplantation patients. Xiaoqing Zhang, Jiandong Xu, Junwei Fan, Tao Zhang, Yuping Li, Boxiong Xie, Wei Zhang, Shengtao Lin, Ling Ye, Yuan Liu, and Gening Jiang Copyright © 2017 Xiaoqing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Case-Control Study of the Association between Polymorphisms in the Fibrinogen Alpha Chain Gene and Schizophrenia Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/3104180/ Our previous studies using the mass spectrum analysis provided evidence that fibrinopeptide A (FPA) could be a potential biomarker for schizophrenia diagnosis. We sought further to demonstrate that variants in the fibrinogen alpha chain gene (FGA) coded FPA might confer vulnerability to schizophrenia. 1,145 patients with schizophrenia and 1,016 healthy volunteers from the Han population in Northeast China were recruited. The association of three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2070011 in the UTR, rs2070016 in intron 4, and rs2070022 in the UTR) in FGA and schizophrenia was examined using a case-control study design. Genotypic distributions of these three SNPs were not found to be significantly different between cases and controls (rs2070011: , ; rs2070016: , ; rs2070022: , ). There were also no significant differences in SNP allelic frequencies between cases and controls (all ). Additionally, the frequency of haplotypes consisting of alleles of these three SNPs was not significantly different between cases and healthy control subjects (global , ). Our study did not show a significant association of FGA SNPs with schizophrenia. Future studies may need to test more FGA SNPs in a larger sample to identify those SNPs with a minor or moderate effect on schizophrenia. Wenwang Rao, Na Zhou, Huiping Zhang, Rui Liu, Shangchao Zhang, Yingying Su, Guang Yang, Yue Ma, Jieping Shi, Yaqin Yu, and Qiong Yu Copyright © 2017 Wenwang Rao et al. All rights reserved. Does MMP-9 Gene Polymorphism Play a Role in Pituitary Adenoma Development? Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/5839528/ Purpose. To determine if the MMP-9 genotype has an influence on development of pituitary adenoma (PA). Methodology. The study enrolled patients with PA and healthy controls (reference group). The genotyping of MMP-9 was carried out using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results. Our data demonstrated that the MMP-9 (–1562) C/C genotype was more frequent in PA group than in healthy controls (81.4% versus 64.6%, ); C/C genotype was more frequently present in PA females compared to healthy control females, 81.5% versus 64.6%, , as well. MMP-9 (–1562) C/C genotype was frequently observed for all subgroups: noninvasive and invasive, nonrecurrence, and inactive PA compared to healthy controls: 81.8% versus 64.6%, ; 81.0% versus 64.6%, ; 81.8% versus 64.6%, ; 100.0% versus 64.6%, , respectively. MMP-9 (–1562) C/C genotype was more frequent in inactive PA compared to active PA: 100.0% versus 71.4%; . Conclusion. MMP-9 (–1562) C/C genotype plays a role in nonrecurrence, inactive, and invasive as well as in nonivasive PA development. Brigita Glebauskiene, Rasa Liutkeviciene, Alvita Vilkeviciute, Loresa Kriauciuniene, Silvija Jakstiene, Egle Zlatkute, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Reda Zemaitiene, Paulina Vaitkiene, and Dalia Zaliuniene Copyright © 2017 Brigita Glebauskiene et al. All rights reserved. HE4 Serum Levels in Patients with BRCA1 Gene Mutation Undergoing Prophylactic Surgery as well as in Other Benign and Malignant Gynecological Diseases Sun, 15 Jan 2017 12:49:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/9792756/ Objective. We assess the behavior of serum concentrations of HE4 marker in female carriers of BRCA1 and assess the diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Methods. A total of 619 women with BRCA1 gene mutation, ovarian, endometrial, metastatic, other gynecological cancers, or benign gynecological diseases were included. Intergroup comparative analyses were carried out, the BRCA1 gene carriers subgroup was subjected to detailed analysis, and ROC curves were determined for the assessment of diagnostic usefulness of HE4 in ovarian and endometrial cancer. Results. Statistically lower serum HE4 and CA 125 levels were observed in BRCA1 gene mutation premenopausal carriers. Occult ovarian/fallopian tube cancer was found 3.6%. Each of those patients was characterized by slightly elevated levels of either CA 125 (63.9 and 39.4 U/mL) or HE4 (79 pmol/L). The ROC-AUC curves were 0.892 and 0.894 for diagnostic usefulness of ovarian cancer and 0.865 for differentiation of endometrial cancer from endometrial polyps. Conclusions. Patients with BRCA1 gene mutations have relatively low serum HE4 levels. Even the slightest elevation in HE4 or CA 125 levels in female BRCA1 carriers undergoing prophylactic surgery should significantly increase oncological alertness. The HE4 marker is valuable in ovarian and uterine cancer diagnosis. Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Aleksandra Strojna, and Janusz Menkiszak Copyright © 2017 Anita Chudecka-Głaz et al. All rights reserved. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness Thu, 12 Jan 2017 08:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/8784971/ Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy. Ioana Mozos, Dana Stoian, and Constantin Tudor Luca Copyright © 2017 Ioana Mozos et al. All rights reserved. Amniotic Fluid Infection in Preterm Pregnancies with Intact Membranes Thu, 12 Jan 2017 07:37:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/8167276/ Introduction. Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is a major cause of preterm labor and adverse neonatal outcome. We evaluated amniotic fluid (AF) proteolytic cascade forming biomarkers in relation to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and IAI in preterm pregnancies with intact membranes. Material and Methods. Amniocentesis was made to 73 women with singleton pregnancies; 27 with suspected IAI; and 46 controls. AF biomarkers were divided into three cascades: Cascade 1: matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6; Cascade 2: neutrophil elastase (HNE), elafin, and MMP-9; Cascade 3: MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio, and C-reactive protein (CRP). MMP-8 was measured by an immunoenzymometric assay and the others were measured by ELISA. Standard biochemical methods, molecular microbiology, and culture techniques were used. Results. MMP-8, MMP-9, MPO, elafin, and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in IAI suspected cases compared to controls and also in IAI suspected cases with MIAC compared to those without MIAC when adjusted by gestational age at amniocentesis. All biomarkers except elafin and MMP-2 had the sensitivity of 100% with thresholds based on ROC-curve. Odd ratios of biomarkers for MIAC were 1.2-38 and 95% confidential intervals 1.0-353.6. Conclusions. Neutrophil based AF biomarkers were associated with IAI and MIAC. Tarja Myntti, Leena Rahkonen, Irmeli Nupponen, Anu Pätäri-Sampo, Minna Tikkanen, Timo Sorsa, Juuso Juhila, Sture Andersson, Jorma Paavonen, and Vedran Stefanovic Copyright © 2017 Tarja Myntti et al. All rights reserved. Decreased Expression of Hsa_circ_00001649 in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinical Significance Thu, 12 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/4587698/ Background. It has been reported that circRNAs are differentially expressed in a wide range of cancers and could be used as a new biomarker for diagnosis. However, the correlation between circRNAs and gastric cancer (GC) it is still unclear. Materials and Methods. In this study, by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs), we detected the expression level of hsa_circ_0001649 in tissue and serum samples from GC patients. Results. We found that hsa_circ_0001649 expression was significantly downregulated in GC tissue compared with their paired paracancerous histological normal tissues (PCHNTs) (). We next analyzed the expression level of hsa_circ_0001649 in serum samples between preoperative and postoperative GC patients. We found that its level in serum was significantly upregulated after surgery (). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.834. Moreover, the expression level of hsa_circ_0001649 was significantly correlated with pathological differentiation (). Conclusion. Our test suggested that hsa_circ_0001649 was significantly downregulated in GC and may become a novel potential biomarker in the diagnosis of GC. Wen-han Li, Yong-chun Song, Hao Zhang, Zhang-jian Zhou, Xin Xie, Qing-nuo Zeng, Kun Guo, Ting Wang, Peng Xia, and Dong-min Chang Copyright © 2017 Wen-han Li et al. All rights reserved. CACNA1B (Cav2.2) Overexpression and Its Association with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Unfavorable Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tue, 03 Jan 2017 14:02:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/6136401/ CACNA1B (2.2) encodes an N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) ubiquitously expressed in brain and peripheral nervous system that is important for regulating neuropathic pain. Because intracellular calcium concentration is a key player in cell proliferation and apoptosis, VGCCs are implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent studies have identified CACNA1B (2.2) being overexpressed in prostate and breast cancer tissues when compared to adjacent normal tissues; however, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been investigated. In this study, we determined the mRNA and protein expression of CACNA1B (2.2) in NSCLC tumorous and adjacent nontumorous tissues by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC), respectively. CACNA1B (2.2) protein expressions in tumorous tissues were correlated with NSCLC patients’ clinical characteristics and overall survival. CACNA1B (2.2) mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in NSCLC tumorous tissues than in nontumorous tissues. High CACNA1B (2.2) protein expression was associated with higher TNM stages, and CACNA1B (2.2) protein expression is an independent prognostic marker in NSCLC. Based on our results, we conclude that CACNA1B (2.2) plays a role in NSCLC development and progression. Elucidating the underlying mechanism may help design novel treatment by specifically targeting the calcium regulation pathway for NSCLC, a devastating disease with increasing incidence and mortality in China. Xiaoyu Zhou, Wei Wang, Shu Zhang, Xudong Wang, Zhiyuan Tang, Jun Gu, Jun Li, and Jianan Huang Copyright © 2017 Xiaoyu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Parathyroid Hormone Levels in the Prediction of Ischemic Stroke Risk Mon, 02 Jan 2017 07:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2017/4343171/ Objective. It was examined whether PTH and 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, together or separately, are indicators of the risk of stroke. Materials and Methods. This prospective study was performed at two centers. In the study, 100 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control individuals in the same age range were examined. In addition to neurological examination, cranial imaging, extensive routine blood chemistry, PTH, and 25(OH)D levels were evaluated in all cases. Stroke risk factors were determined. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results. A total of 60 patients and 79 control individuals were included in the study. Different estimation models were designed in order to examine the relationship between PTH and 25(OH)D levels with stroke. According to modeling results, it was determined that the most effective predictor for risk of stroke was 25(OH)D levels, followed by hypertension and PTH levels, respectively. Conclusion. PTH and 25(OH)D levels together can make important contributions to determination of stroke risk, and further investigations are needed to understand this relationship more fully. Güner Çelik, Ali Doğan, Şefik Dener, Şerefnur Öztürk, Sevsen Kulaksızoğlu, and Hakan Ekmekçi Copyright © 2017 Güner Çelik et al. All rights reserved. The -938C>A Polymorphism in MYD88 Is Associated with Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study Thu, 29 Dec 2016 14:53:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/4961086/ Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathway plays a crucial role in the recognition of MTB. Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) gene polymorphisms in TB. Materials and Methods. A total of 103 TB cases and 92 control subjects were genotyped for the MYD88 -938C>A (rs4988453) and 1944C>G (rs4988457) polymorphisms. Results. The MYD88 -938CA and -938AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk for tuberculosis with odds ratio (OR) of 5.71 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 2.89–11.28, ). Conclusions. The MYD88 -938C>A genetic polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to TB and may serve as a marker to screen individuals who are at risk. Kalliopi Aggelou, Elena Konstantina Siapati, Irini Gerogianni, Zoe Daniil, Konstantinos Gourgoulianis, Ioannis Ntanos, Emmanouel Simantirakis, Elias Zintzaras, Vassiliki Mollaki, and George Vassilopoulos Copyright © 2016 Kalliopi Aggelou et al. All rights reserved. High Interleukin-12 Levels May Prevent an Increase in the Amount of Fungi in the Gastrointestinal Tract during the First Years of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Thu, 29 Dec 2016 14:40:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/4685976/ The objective of the research was to investigate serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL12) in relation to percentage of yeast-like fungi colonies residing in the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study involved 83 children and adolescents, including 53 T1DM patients and 30 healthy control subjects. In the studied population biochemical tests were performed and yeast-like fungi were identified in the faeces. Moreover, IL12 absorbance was measured and measurements of Candida albicans IgG and IgM antibodies were performed with microplate reader ChroMate 4300 (Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) at wavelength  nm. In the group of T1DM children and adolescents with disease duration ≤ 2 years, high levels of IL12 were found with lower percentage of yeast-like fungal colonies versus T1DM patients with disease duration > 2 years and ≤5 years, as well as versus T1DM patients with disease duration > 5 years. Additionally, serum levels of IL12 were found to be decreasing by 18.1 pg/ml with each year of diabetes duration. IL12 serum levels were also found to be decreasing by 52.9 pg/ml with each 1% increase in HbA1c. We suggest that high IL12 levels can inhibit infection with yeast-like fungi colonizing the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with T1DM. Further studies are needed to confirm the antifungal activity of IL12. Beata Kowalewska, Katarzyna Zorena, Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko, Piotr Wąż, and Małgorzata Myśliwiec Copyright © 2016 Beata Kowalewska et al. All rights reserved. Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue but Not in Liver Is Associated with Aortic Valve Calcification Thu, 29 Dec 2016 07:37:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/9085474/ Background. Insulin resistance is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but its relationship with cardiovascular calcification has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance on the presence of coronary artery (CAC > 0) and aortic valve calcification (AVC > 0). Methods. In 1201 subjects (52% women, years old) without familiar and personal history of coronary heart disease, CAC and AVC were assessed by multidetector-computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk factors were documented and lipid profile, inflammation markers, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids were measured. Hepatic insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) indices were calculated. Results. There was a significant relationship between HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices (, ). Participants in the highest quartiles of HOMA-IR and Adipo-IR indices had a more adverse cardiovascular profile and higher prevalence of CAC > 0 and AVC > 0. After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of Adipo-IR index had higher odds of AVC > 0 (OR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.30–4.43), as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Adipo-IR was independently associated with AVC > 0. This suggests that abnormal adipose tissue function favors insulin resistance that may promote the development and progression of AVC. Esteban Jorge-Galarza, Carlos Posadas-Romero, Margarita Torres-Tamayo, Aida X. Medina-Urrutia, Marco A. Rodas-Díaz, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, María del Carmen González-Salazar, Guillermo C. Cardoso-Saldaña, and Juan G. Juárez-Rojas Copyright © 2016 Esteban Jorge-Galarza et al. All rights reserved. Handheld Capillary Blood Lactate Analyzer as an Accessible and Cost-Effective Prognostic Tool for the Assessment of Death and Heart Failure Occurrence during Long-Term Follow-Up Wed, 28 Dec 2016 07:27:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/5965782/ Impact of tissue lactate accumulation on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is biased. The study aimed to assess the prognostic role of lactate concentration (LC) in patients with AMI during one year of follow-up. 145 consecutive patients admitted due to AMI were enrolled. The data on the frequency of endpoint occurrence (defined as I, death; II, heart failure (HF); and III, recurrent myocardial infarction (re-MI)) were collected. The patients were divided into group A (LC below the cut-off value) and group B (LC above the cut-off value) for the endpoints according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cumulative survival rate was 99% in group I-A and 85% in group I-B (p = 0.0004, log-rank test). The HF-free survival rate was 95% in group II-A and 82% in group II-B (p = 0.0095, log-rank test). The re-MI-free survival rate did not differ between groups. A multivariate Cox analysis showed a statistically significant influence of LC on death [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.41, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.13–1.76), and p = 0.002] and HF [HR: 1.21, 95% CI (1.05–1.4), and p = 0.007] with no impact on re-MI occurrence. LC in capillary blood may be considered a useful prognostic marker of late-onset heart failure and death after AMI. Grzegorz M. Kubiak, Wojciech Jacheć, Celina Wojciechowska, Magdalena Traczewska, Agnieszka Kolaszko, Leszek Kubiak, Joanna Jojko, and Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska Copyright © 2016 Grzegorz M. Kubiak et al. All rights reserved. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α T-857C (rs1799724) Polymorphism and Risk of Cancers: A Meta-Analysis Tue, 27 Dec 2016 08:14:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/4580323/ Objectives. To investigate the potential association of tumor necrosis factor-α T-857C polymorphism with susceptibility to the five common malignant tumors. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed up to November 2015. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Subgroup analysis, heterogeneity analyses, and publication bias were also texted in the meta-analysis. Results. A total of twenty-two publications involving 5215 cases and 6755 controls were recruited. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed an increased risk between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in T versus C model, heterozygote genetic model, and dominant genetic model. An increased risk between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and hepatocellular cancer susceptibility in homozygote genetic model and recessive genetic model was also found. No significant association was found between the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism and colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer. Conclusions. Our meta-analyses suggest that TNF-α T-857C polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer development. Therefore, the TNF-α T-857C polymorphism could be considered as one possible risk factor of gastric cancer and hepatocellular cancer according to our study. Ping Wang, June Wang, Mingxia Yu, and Zhiqiang Li Copyright © 2016 Ping Wang et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women Mon, 26 Dec 2016 16:23:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/7169531/ Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1) levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: ). There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce’s protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity. J. Mieczkowska, E. Rutkowska, J. Mosiewicz, and B. Mosiewicz Copyright © 2016 J. Mieczkowska et al. All rights reserved. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mon, 26 Dec 2016 16:21:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/7420540/ Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients () while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all ). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers. Yan-Hong Pan, Min Wang, Yan-Mei Huang, Ying-Hui Wang, Yin-Ling Chen, Li-Jun Geng, Xiao-Xi Zhang, and Hai-Lu Zhao Copyright © 2016 Yan-Hong Pan et al. All rights reserved.