Table of Contents
Dataset Papers in Ecology
Volume 2013, Article ID 857470, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.7167/2013/857470
Dataset Paper

Detailed Food Web Networks of Three Greater Antillean Coral Reef Systems: The Cayman Islands, Cuba, and Jamaica

1Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Geology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
2Department of Geology, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

Received 11 April 2012; Accepted 3 May 2012

Academic Editors: J. T. Bayle, S. M. Fitzpatrick, and M. Roleda

Copyright © 2013 Peter D. Roopnarine and Rachel Hertog. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. B. C. Jackson, “Reefs since Columbus,” Coral Reefs, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S23–S32, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. J. Hardt, “Lessons from the past: the collapse of Jamaican coral reefs,” Fish and Fisheries, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 143–158, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. J. Mumby, C. P. Dahlgren, A. R. Harborne et al., “Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5757, pp. 98–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. P. Sebens, “Biodiversity of coral reefs: what are we losing and why?” American Zoologist, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 115–133, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. A. Gardner, I. M. Côté, J. A. Gill, A. Grant, and A. R. Watkinson, “Long-term region-wide declines in Caribbean corals,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5635, pp. 958–960, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Mora, “A clear human footprint in the coral reefs of the Caribbean,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 275, no. 1636, pp. 767–773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Burke, K. Reytar, M. Spalding, and A. Perry, Reefs at Risk Revisited, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
  8. J. M. Montoya, S. L. Pimm, and R. V. Solé, “Ecological networks and their fragility,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7100, pp. 259–264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Dunne, R. J. Williams, and N. D. Martinez, “Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: robustness increases with connectance,” Ecology Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 558–567, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Allesina and A. Bodini, “Who dominates whom in the ecosystem? Energy flow bottlenecks and cascading extinctions,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 230, no. 3, pp. 351–358, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. D. Roopnarine, “Extinction cascades and catastrophe in ancient food webs,” Paleobiology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. D. Roopnarine, “Ecological modeling of paleocommunity food webs,” in Conservation Paleobiology, G. Dietl and K. Flessa, Eds., vol. 15 of Paleontological Society Papers, pp. 195–220, The Paleontological Society, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. A. Dunne and R. J. Williams, “Cascading extinctions and community collapse in model food webs,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 364, no. 1524, pp. 1711–1723, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. D. Roopnarine, “Networks, extinction and paleocommunity food webs,” in Quantitative Methods in Paleobiology, J. Alroy and G. Hunt, Eds., vol. 16 of Paleontological Society Papers, The Paleontological Society, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Bascompte, C. J. Melián, and E. Sala, “Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a Marine food web,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 15, pp. 5443–5447, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. J. H. Newman, G. A. Paredes, E. Sala, and J. B. C. Jackson, “Structure of Caribbean coral reef communities across a large gradient of fish biomass,” Ecology Letters, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1216–1227, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. A. J. Graham, T. R. McClanahan, M. A. MacNeil et al., “Climate warming, Marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 8, Article ID e3039, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. R. Selig and J. F. Bruno, “A global analysis of the effectiveness of Marine protected areas in preventing coral loss,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e9278, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. B. Owre and M. Foyo, “Studies on Caribbean zooplankton. Description of the program and results of the first cruise,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 22, pp. 483–521, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Acosta, M. Casas, C. A. Vargas, and J. Camacho, “Lista de zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) del caribe y Colombia,” Biota Colombiana, vol. 6, pp. 147–162, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Zea and E. Weil, “Taxonomy of the Caribbean excavating sponge species complex Cliona caribbaeaC. apricaC. langae (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae),” Caribbean Journal of Science, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 348–370, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. L. Wulff, “Rapid diversity and abundance decline in a Caribbean coral reef sponge community,” Biological Conservation, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 167–176, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. P. Sebens, S. P. Grace, B. Helmuth, E. J. Maney Jr., and J. S. Miles, “Water flow and prey capture by three scleractinian corals, Madracis mirabilis, Montastrea cavernoss and Porites porites in a field enclosure,” Marine Biology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 347–360, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. E. Bowman, “Pelagic amphipods of the genus Hyperia and closely related genera (Hyperiidea: Hyperiidae),” Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, vol. 136, 76 pages, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. A. Buzas, R. K. Smith, and K. A. Beem, “Ecology and systematics of Foraminifera in two Thalassia habitats, Jamaica, West Indies,” Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, vol. 31, 139 pages, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  26. C. S. Rogers, T. H. Suchanek, and F. A. Pecora, “Effects of Hurricanes David and Frederic (1979) on shallow Acropora palmata reef communities: st. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 532–548, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Birkeland and S. Neudecker, “Foraging behavior of two Caribbean chaetodontids: Chaetodon capistratus and C. aculeatus,” Copeia, no. 1, pp. 169–178, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  28. K. P. Sebens, “Intertidal distribution of zoanthids on the Caribbean coast of Panama: effects of predation and desiccation,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 32, pp. 316–335, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  29. T. F. Goreau and J. W. Wells, “The shallow-water scleractinia of Jamaica: revised list of species and their vertical distribution range,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 17, pp. 442–453, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  30. T. S. Park, “Calanoid copepods from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. 2. New species and new records from pankton samples,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 20, pp. 472–546, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  31. N. Knowlton and B. D. Keller, “A new, sibling species of snapping shrimp associated with the Caribbean sea anemone Bartholomea annulata ( Alpheus armatus/immaculatus),” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 353–362, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. M. Reiswig, “Population dynamics of three Jamaican Demospongiae,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 23, pp. 191–226, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  33. D. L. Meyer, “Distribution and living habits of comatulid crinoids near discovery bay, Jamaica,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 23, pp. 245–259, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  34. E. M. Preston and J. L. Preston, “Ecological structure in a West Indian gorgonian fauna,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 25, pp. 248–258, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. B. C. Jackson, “The ecology of molluscs of Thalassia communities, Jamaica, West Indies. I. Distribution, environmental physiology, and ecology of common shallow-water species,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 23, pp. 313–350, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  36. D. A. West, “Symbiotic zoanthids (Anthozoa: Cnidaria) of Puerto Rico,” Bulletin of Marine Science, no. 29, pp. 253–271, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  37. P. S. Lobel, “Herbivory by damselfishes and their role in coral reef community ecology,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 30, pp. 273–289, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  38. B. A. Hazlett, “Biotic aspects of the distribution of the crabs Panopeus herbstii and Mithrax sculptus,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 29, pp. 576–580, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  39. J. E. Randall, “Food Habits of Reef Fishes of the West Indies,” Studies in Tropical Oceanography, vol. 5, pp. 665–847, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  40. C. P. Santos, A. B. Coutinho, and E. Hajdu, “Spongivory by Eucidaris tribuloides from Salvador, Bahia (Echinodermata: Echinoidea),” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 295–297, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. T. Dy, F. T. Uy, and C. A. Coralles, “Feeding, respiration, and excretion by the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from the Philippines,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 82, pp. 299–302, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. H. Gore, L. E. Scotto, and L. J. Becker, “Community composition: stability, and trophic partitioning in decapod crustaceans inhabiting some subtropical sabellariid worm reefs,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 28, pp. 221–248, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  43. W. M. Goldberg, “The ecology of the coral-octocoral communities off the southeast Florida coast: geomorphology, species composition, and zonation,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 23, pp. 465–488, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Wolcott and C. Messing, “A comparison of diets and water agitation methods for larval culture of the edible sea urchin,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 77, pp. 177–190, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  45. G. L. Voss and N. Voss, “An ecological survey of soldier key, biscayne bay, Florida,” Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, vol. 5, pp. 203–229, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  46. G. S. Kleppel, “On the diets of calanoid copepods,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 99, no. 1-2, pp. 183–195, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Cobb and J. M. Lawrence, “Diets and coexistence of the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata (Echinodermata) along the central Florida gulf coast,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 295, pp. 171–182, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. B. Manning and D. K. Camp, “A new genus of stomatopod from the caribbean sea (Stomatopoda: Squillidae),” Journal of Crustacean Biology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 202–204, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. E. Tschudin, “Shell morphology, shell texture and species discrimination of Caribbean Tucetona (Bivalvia, Glycymeridae),” Journal of Paleontology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 658–679, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Nakamura and J. T. Turner, “Predation and respiration by the small cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis: how important is feeding on ciliates and heterotrophic flagellates?” Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1275–1288, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. L. M. Mantelatto and M. Petracco, “Natural diet of the crab Hepatus pudibundus (Brachyura: Calappidae) in Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba (SP), Brazil,” Journal of Crustacean Biology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 440–446, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. F. Sander and E. Moore, “A comparative study of inshore and offshore copepod populations at barbados, West Indes,” Crustaceana, vol. 35, pp. 225–240, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. S. Hill, “Spongivory on Caribbean reefs releases corals from competition with sponges,” Oecologia, vol. 117, no. 1-2, pp. 143–150, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. R. Wilkinson and A. C. Cheshire, “Growth rate of Jamaican coral reef sponges after hurricane allen,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 175, pp. 175–179, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  55. B. Kensley and R. H. Gore, “Coralaxius Abelei, new genus and new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Axiidae): a coral-inhabiting shrimp from the Florida keys and the Western Caribbean sea,” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, vol. 93, pp. 1277–1294, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  56. C. A. Góes and J. E. Lins-Oliveira, “Natural diet of the spiny lobster, Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae), from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 143–148, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. F. Goreau, “The ecology of Jamaican Coral Reefs I. Species composition and zonation,” Ecology, vol. 40, pp. 67–90, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  58. J. W. Porter, “Patterns of species diversity in Caribbean Reef Corals,” Ecology, vol. 53, pp. 745–748, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  59. I. Goodbody, “Continuous breeding in populations of two tropical crustaceans, Mysidium columbiae (Zimmer) and Emerita portoricensis schmidt,” Ecology, vol. 46, pp. 195–197, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  60. J. E. Randall, “Grazing effect on sea grasses by herbivorous reef fishes in the West Indies,” Ecology, vol. 46, pp. 255–260, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  61. M. M. Littler, D. S. Littler, and P. R. Taylor, “Selective herbivore increases biomass of its prey: a Chiton-Coralline reef-building association,” Ecology, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 1666–1681, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. R. Robertson, “Cohabitation of competing territorial damselfishes on a Caribbean coral reef,” Ecology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1121–1135, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. E. Hay, “Patterns of fish and urchin grazing on Caribbean coral reefs: are previous results typical?” Ecology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 446–454, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. C. Martínez Iglesias and J. E. García Raso, “The crustacean decapod communities of three coral reefs from the southwestern Caribbean Sea of Cuba: species composition, abundance and structure of the communities,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 539–557, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Nomura, K. Aihara, and T. Ishimaru, “Feeding of the chaetognath Sagitta crassa Tokioka in heavily eutrophicated Tokyo bay, Japan,” Plankton and Benthos Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 120–127, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Gasca and C. T. Shih, “Hyperiid amphipods from surface waters of the western Caribbean Sea (1991),” Crustaceana, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 489–499, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. L. Rueda and C. Salas, “Trophic dependence of the emerald neritid Smaragdia viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) on two seagrasses from European coasts,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 211–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. Moore and F. Sander, “A comparative study of zooplankton from oceanic, shelf, and harbor waters of Jamaica,” Biotropica, vol. 11, pp. 196–206, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  69. D. F. Webber, M. K. Webber, and J. C. Roff, “Effects of flood waters on the planktonic community of the Hellshire coast, southeast Jamaica,” Biotropica, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 362–374, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. W. Porter, “Autotrophy, heterotrophy, and resource partitioning in Caribbean reef-building corals,” The American Naturalist, vol. 110, pp. 731–742, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  71. R. B. Aronson and W. F. Precht, “Herbivory and algal dynamics on the coral reef at discovery bay, Jamaica,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 251–255, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. R. Emery, “Preliminary observations on coral reef plankton,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 13, pp. 293–303, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. Ribes, R. Coma, and J. M. Gili, “Heterotrophic feeding by gorgonian corals with symbiotic zooxanthella,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1170–1179, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. M. Lewis, “The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean coral reef community,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 56, pp. 184–200, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  75. B. F. McPherson, “Feeding and Oxygen Uptake of the Tropical Sea Urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamark),” Biological Bulletin, vol. 135, pp. 308–321, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  76. P. Francour, “Predation on holothurians: a literature review,” Invertebrate Biology, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 52–60, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. E. Holmes, “Effects of eutrophication on bioeroding sponge communities with the description of new West Indian sponges, Cliona spp. (Porifera: Hadromerida: Clionidae),” Invertebrate Biology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. E. Martin and W. D. Liddell, “Foraminiferal biofacies on a North Coast fringing reef (1–75m), discovery bay, Jamaica,” Palaios, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 298–314, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. F. Goreau, “Mass expulsion of zooxanthellae from Jamaican reef communities after hurricane flora,” Science, vol. 145, no. 3630, pp. 383–386, 1964. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. J. Goreau, “Bleaching and reef community change in Jamaica: 1951–1991,” American Zoologist, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 683–695, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Rowley, “A critical evaluation of the symbiotic association between tropical tube-dwelling Polychaetes and their Hermatypic coral hosts, with a focus on Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas, 1766),” The Plymouth Student Scientist, vol. 1, pp. 335–353, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  82. T. Ishimaru, S. Nishida, and R. Marumo, “Food size selectivity of zooplankton evaluated from the occurence of coccolithophorids in the guts,” Bulletin of the Plankton Sociey of Japan, vol. 35, pp. 101–114, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  83. J. B. C. Jackson, “Overgrowth competition between encrusting cheilostome ectoprocts in a Jamaican crytic reef environment,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 805–823, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. J. Godley, S. M. Smith, P. F. Clark, and J. D. Taylor, “Molluscan and crustacean items in the diet of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) [Testudines: Chelonidae] in the eastern Mediterranean,” Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 474–476, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. M. Reiswig, “Particle feeding in natural populations of three Marine demosponges,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 141, pp. 568–591, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  86. P. Knight-Jones and A. S. Y. Mackie, “A revision of Sabellastarte (Polychaeta: Sabellidae),” Journal of Natural History, vol. 37, no. 19, pp. 2269–2301, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. D. Woodley, E. A. Chornesky, P. A. Clifford et al., “Hurricane Allen's impact on Jamaican coral reefs,” Science, vol. 214, no. 4522, pp. 749–755, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C. M. Wahle, “Regeneration of injuries among Jamaican gorgonians: the roles of colony physiology and environment,” Biological Bulletin, vol. 165, pp. 778–790, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  89. T. T. Noji, U. V. Bathmann, B. Von Bodungen et al., “Clearance of picoplankton-sized particles and formation of rapidly sinking aggregates by the pteropod, Limacina retroversa,” Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 863–875, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. Q. Yokoyama and A. C. Z. Amaral, “The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil,” Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 576–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. E. Broglio, S. H. Jónasdóttir, A. Calbet, H. H. Jakobsen, and E. Saiz, “Effect of heterotrophic versus autotrophic food on feeding and reproduction of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: relationship with prey fatty acid composition,” Aquatic Microbial Ecology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 267–278, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. G. Abele and W. Kim, “An illustrated guide to the Marine decapod crustaceans of Florida,” Tech. Rep., State of Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  93. M. Dunlap and J. R. Pawlik, “Video-monitored predation by Caribbean reef fishes on an array of mangrove and reef sponges,” Marine Biology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. I. Gilbert, Juvenile Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging ecology: feeding selectivity and forage nutrient analysis [M.S. thesis], University of Central Florida, 1998.
  95. M. A. Faust, “Dinoflagellate associations in a coral reef-mangrove ecosystem: pelican and associated Cays, Belize,” Atoll Research Bulletin, no. 466–480, pp. 135–149, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. C. T. Perry, “Macroborers within coral framework at discovery bay, north Jamaica: species distribution and abundance, and effects on coral preservation,” Coral Reefs, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 277–287, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. T. R. McClanahan, “Predation and the control of the sea urchin Echinometra viridis and fleshy algae in the patch reefs of Glovers Reef, Belize,” Ecosystems, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 511–523, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. R. J. Livingston, “The relationship of physical factors and biological response in coastal seagrass meadows,” Estuaries, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 377–390, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. A. E. Malaquias, E. Berecibar, and D. G. Reid, “Reassessment of the trophic position of Bullidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea) and the importance of diet in the evolution of cephalaspidean gastropods,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 277, no. 1, pp. 88–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. P. W. Glynn, “Ecology of a Caribbean coral reef. The Porites reef-flat biotope: part II. Plankton community with evidence for depletion,” Marine Biology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. M. G. Frick, “Lepidochelys kempi (Kemp’s Ridley) Caretta caretta (Loggerhead), and Malaclemys terrapin centrata (Carolina Diamondback Terrapin) diet and predation,” Herpetological Review, vol. 28, 149 pages, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  102. M. G. Frick, “Dermochelys coriacea (Leatherback Sea Turtle) Lepidochelys kempi (Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle, and Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle) pelagic feeding,” Herpetological Review, vol. 30, 165 pages, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  103. A. G. Payne, C. Smith, and A. C. Campbell, “Interactions between ophiuroids and beaugregory damselfish,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 625–632, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. Y. M. León and K. A. Bjorndal, “Selective feeding in the hawksbill turtle, an important predator in coral reef ecosystems,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 245, pp. 249–258, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. Lirman and P. Biber, “Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities of the Northern Florida Reef Tract,” Botanica Marina, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 305–314, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. M. M. Littler, P. R. Taylor, and D. S. Littler, “Algal resistance to herbivory on a Caribbean barrier reef,” Coral Reefs, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. H. R. Lasker, “A comparison of the particulate feeding abilities of three species of gorgonian soft coral,” Marine Ecology Progress Species, vol. 5, pp. 61–67, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  108. L. S. Hammond, “Analysis of grain-size selection by deposit-feeding holothurians and echinoids (Echinodermata) from a shallow reef lagoon, discovery bay, Jamaica,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 8, pp. 25–36, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  109. L. S. Hammond, “Nutrition of deposit-feeding holothuroids and echinoids from a shallow reef lagoon, discovery bay, Jamaica,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 10, pp. 297–305, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  110. K. W. Rylaarsdam, “Life histories and abundance patterns of colonial corals on Jamaican reefs,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 13, pp. 249–260, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  111. H. R. Lasker, “Prey preferences and browsing pressure of the butterflyfish Chaetodon capistratus on Caribbean gorgonians,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 21, pp. 213–220, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  112. D. J. Gerhart, “Gregariousness in the gorgonian-eating gastropod Cyphoma gibbosum: tests of several possible causes,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 31, pp. 255–263, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  113. J. L. Ruesink and C. Drew Harvell, “Specialist predation on the Caribbean gorgonian Plexaurella spp. by Cyphoma signatum (Gastropoda),” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 65, pp. 265–272, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  114. J. B. Lewis, “Heterotrophy in corals: zooplankton predation by the hydrocoral Millepora complanata,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 251–256, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. J. Cobb and J. M. Lawrence, “Diets and coexistence of the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata (Echinodermata) along the central Florida gulf coast,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 295, pp. 171–182, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. W. Miller and C. L. Gerstner, “Reefs of an uninhabited Caribbean island: fishes, benthic habitat, and opportunities to discern reef fishery impact,” Biological Conservation, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. A. Mortimer, “The feeding ecology of the West Caribbean green turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Nicaragua,” Biotropica, vol. 13, pp. 49–58, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  118. D. F. Amorocho and R. D. Reina, “Feeding ecology of the East Pacific green sea turtle Chelonia mydas agassizii at Gorgona National Park, Colombia,” Endangered Species Research, vol. 3, pp. 43–51, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  119. M. E. Hay, T. Colburn, and D. Downing, “Spatial and temporal patterns in herbivory on a Caribbean fringing reef: the effects on plant distribution,” Oecologia, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 299–308, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. D. K. Padilla, “Algal structural defenses: form and calcification in resistance to tropical limpets,” Ecology, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 835–842, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. D. P. Báez and N. E. Ardila, “Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) del Mar Caribe colombiano,” Biota Colombiana, vol. 4, pp. 89–109, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  122. J. E. Randall and W. D. Hartman, “Sponge-feeding fishes of the West Indies,” Marine Biology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 216–225, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. C. J. Berg Jr., “Behavior and ecology of conch (Superfamily Strombacea) on a deep subtidal algal plain,” Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 25, pp. 307–317, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  124. J. T. Turner, “The feeding ecology of some zooplankters that are important prey items of larval fish,” Tech. Rep. 7, NOAA Technical Report NMFS, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  125. Reef Environmental Education Foundation, “Reef environmental education foundation survey data,” Tech. Rep., Reef Environmental Education Foundation, 2010, http://www.reef.org/. View at Google Scholar
  126. S. Opitz, Trophic Interactions in Caribbean Coral Reefs, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines, 1996.
  127. F. Briand and J. E. Cohen, “Community food webs have scale-invariant structure,” Nature, vol. 307, no. 5948, pp. 264–267, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. J. B. C. Jackson, M. X. Kirby, W. H. Berger et al., “Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5530, pp. 629–638, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. P. D. Roopnarine and K. D. Angielczyk, “The evolutionary palaeoecology of species and the tragedy of the commons,” Biology Letters, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 147–150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. P. J. Mumby and A. Hastings, “The impact of ecosystem connectivity on coral reef resilience,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 854–862, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. R. M. May, Stability and Complexity in Model Ecosystems, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2001.