Table of Contents
Dataset Papers in Science
Volume 2014, Article ID 176471, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/176471
Dataset Paper

New Distributional Data of Butterflies in the Middle of the Mediterranean Basin: An Area Very Sensitive to Expected Climate Change

Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unità di Ricerca per la Selvicoltura in Ambiente Mediterraneo, Contrada Li Rocchi-Vermicelli, Rende, 87036 Cosenza, Italy

Received 6 November 2013; Accepted 6 March 2014; Published 12 May 2014

Academic Editors: P. Nowicki, B. Qian, and B. Schatz

Copyright © 2014 Stefano Scalercio. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Butterflies are known to be very sensitive to environmental changes. Species distribution is modified by climate warming with latitudinal and altitudinal range shifts, but also environmental perturbations modify abundance and species composition of communities. Changes can be detected and described when large datasets are available, but unfortunately only for few Mediterranean countries they were created. The butterfly fauna of the Mediterranean Basin is very sensitive to climate warming and there is an urgent need of large datasets to investigate and mitigate risks such as local extinctions or new pest outbreaks. The fauna of Calabria, the southernmost region of peninsular Italy, is composed also of European species having here their southern range. The aim of this dataset paper is to increase and update the knowledge of butterfly distribution in a region very sensitive to climate warming that can become an early-warning area.

1. Introduction

Large and updated datasets are fundamental tools for investigating the effects of climatic changes and environmental perturbations on biodiversity, mainly of sensitive taxa such as butterflies [1]. Butterflies are known to react to climate warming with latitudinal and altitudinal range shifts [2], but these changes are detectable only if distributional datasets are available. In Europe, some countries (Belgium, Finland, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and UK) adopted a standardized butterfly monitoring scheme from several years [3], but in the Mediterranean areas only the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (http://www.catalanbms.org/) and the Suivi Temporel des Rhopalocères de France (http://vigienature.mnhn.fr/page/suivi-temporel-des-rhopaloceres-de-france) are working.

Models of species distribution in face of changes due to climate warming [4] are based on the actual distribution of species and future scenarios can be distorted when a model is based on few data. The southern range of the European distribution of butterflies is largely underinvestigated and only few data are available for southern Italy, an area with a fauna very sensitive to climate changes [5]. In order to detect changes, it is important to investigate the distribution of both common and rare species, but bibliographic sources only rarely provide punctual and useful data of the former causing an important lack of information. Many data can be collected within private and public collections. This is an expensive procedure, but interesting data can be obtained on the past distribution of common species.

In Italy, the first attempt toward a knowledge of the distribution of the fauna at a national scale is represented by the Checklist of the Italian Fauna [6], with the distribution of species only generalized to large areas (North, South, Sardinia, and Sicily). Successively, the project CKmap supported the mapping of 10.000 species of animals at a national level in a UTM grid square [7]. Among them, the distribution of all butterflies species known for Italy was mapped and the localities georeferenced [8]. These localities were obtained from private and public collections, from private datasets, and from bibliographic resources, but very few were collected in the southern regions, where large territories are not explored.

The Calabria is the southernmost region of Italian Peninsula, located in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin. The regional fauna includes European species, having here their southern range limit, particularly sensitive to the risk of local extinctions as a consequence of the expected climate change. Papers devoted to the Calabrian fauna of Lepidoptera are very scarce and only in last few decades the studies were intensified [5, 9, 10]. Anyway, data are largely insufficient to study changes on a regional scale and data are strictly needed for detecting and mitigating risks such as local extinctions or new pest outbreaks.

The aim of this dataset paper is to provide new distributional data and georeferenced datasets useful for the study of dynamics linked to changes on large spatial and temporal scales in the Mediterranean Basin, a region very sensitive to climate changes that can become an early-warning area [5].

2. Methodology

In this dataset paper, all unpublished records of butterflies of the author are reported. Data were collected during the years 2005–2012, mainly in the Cosenza Province, covering all the seasons of butterflies’ activity. Species are named according to the online database of the European Fauna (http://www.faunaeur.org/).

The localities were individuated by two toponyms: the first is the most precise and the second is the most easily recognizable on maps. Latitude and longitude were provided for all localities and grouped in territorial units with similar ecological, geomorphological, and biogeographic features in order to facilitate the individuation of areas that need further investigations. The territorial units individuated are nine [11]: Pollino-Orsomarso Mountains, Catena Costiera Mountains, Sila Mountains, Marchesato Area, Serre Mountains, Aspromonte Mountains, Crati Valley, Tyrrhenian Coast, and Ionian Coast (Figure 1). Data of localities are summarized in Table 1. Species lists were compiled as shown in Dataset Items 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (Tables).

tab1
Table 1: Description of collecting localities.
176471.fig.001
Figure 1: Study area. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin. Territorial units are indicated as follows: 1: Pollino-Orsomarso Mountains; 2: Catena Costiera Mountains; 3: Sila Mountains; 4: Marchesato Area; 5: Serre Mountains; 6: Aspromonte Mountains; 7: Crati Valley; 8: Tyrrhenian Coast; 9: Ionian Coast.

3. Dataset Description

The dataset associated with this Dataset Paper consists of 5 items which are described as follows.

Dataset Item 1 (Table). Species list for the different localities of the Pollino-Orsomarso Mountains. Data presented in this table were based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of a butterfly species.

  • Column 1: Family
  • Column 2: Species
  • Column 3: Bosco Pollinello
  • Column 4: Campo Tenese
  • Column 5: Castrovillari
  • Column 6: Civita
  • Column 7: Cozzo del Pellegrino
  • Column 8: Fagosa
  • Column 9: Fiume Argentino
  • Column 10: La Calvia
  • Column 11: Monte Moschereto
  • Column 12: Monte Palanuda
  • Column 13: Monte Pollino
  • Column 14: Orsomarso
  • Column 15: Piani del Pollino
  • Column 16: Papasidero
  • Column 17: Petrosa
  • Column 18: Serra del Prete
  • Column 19: Serra Dolcedorme
  • Column 20: Timpa San Lorenzo

Dataset Item 2 (Table). Species list for the different localities of the Catena Costiera Mountains. Data presented in this table were based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of a butterfly species.

  • Column 1: Family
  • Column 2: Species
  • Column 3: Acquafredda
  • Column 4: Carolei
  • Column 5: Caselle
  • Column 6: Contrada Manche
  • Column 7: Cozzo Caselle
  • Column 8: Cozzo Cervello
  • Column 9: Cozzo di Monte
  • Column 10: Fiume Jassa
  • Column 11: Fiume Licetto
  • Column 12: Fontana del Conte
  • Column 13: Giardini del Signore
  • Column 14: Iassa
  • Column 15: Laurignano
  • Column 16: Mendicino
  • Column 17: Monte Cocuzzo
  • Column 18: Monte Serratore
  • Column 19: Passo Crocetta
  • Column 20: Passo dello Scalone
  • Column 21: Petrarizzo
  • Column 22: Ponte Nuovo
  • Column 23: Potame
  • Column 24: Pucchiello
  • Column 25: Rancilla
  • Column 26: San Fili
  • Column 27: Scannelle
  • Column 28: Tessano
  • Column 29: Torrente Brittone

Dataset Item 3 (Table). Species list for the different localities of the Sila Mountains. Data presented in this table were based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of a butterfly species.

  • Column 1: Family
  • Column 2: Species
  • Column 3: Acri
  •     ⋮
  • Column 41: Trenta Coste
  • Column 42: Valle Capra
  • Column 43: Vallone Prunillo

Dataset Item 4 (Table). Species list for the different localities of the Tyrrhenian Coast (Amantea, Cessaniti, Cittadella del Capo, Fiume Abatemarco, Foce Fiume Savuto, Monte Pellegrino, Paola, Praia a Mare, Sangineto, Valle Ruffa, and Tropea) and Ionian Coast (Brancaleone Marina, Capo Colonna, Cariati, Casino Feraudo, Caulonia, Copanello, Fiumara Trionto, Gagliano, Gattarella, Macchia della Bura, Mirto, San Nicola, Santa Maria del Mare Vetere, Squillace, Stalettì, and Strange). Data presented in this table were based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of a butterfly species.

  • Column 1: Family
  • Column 2: Species
  • Column 3: Amantea
  • Column 4: Cessaniti
  • Column 5: Cittadella del Capo
  • Column 6: Fiume Abatemarco
  • Column 7: Foce Fiume Savuto
  • Column 8: Monte Pellegrino
  • Column 9: Paola
  • Column 10: Praia a Mare
  • Column 11: Sangineto
  • Column 12: Valle Ruffa
  • Column 13: Tropea
  • Column 14: Brancaleone Marina
  • Column 15: Capo Colonna
  • Column 16: Cariati
  • Column 17: Casino Feraudo
  • Column 18: Caulonia
  • Column 19: Copanello
  • Column 20: Fiumara Trionto
  • Column 21: Gagliano
  • Column 22: Gattarella
  • Column 23: Macchia della Bura
  • Column 24: Mirto
  • Column 25: San Nicola
  • Column 26: Santa Maria del Mare Vetere
  • Column 27: Squillace
  • Column 28: Stalettì
  • Column 29: Strange

Dataset Item 5 (Table). Species list for the different localities of Marchesato Area (Altilia, Cerenzia, Presso Grotta del Palombaro, San Mauro Marchesato, Santa Severina, Scandale, and Grave Grubbo), Crati Valley (Arcavacata, Contrada Salerni, Cosenza, Fiera di San Vito, Lago di Tarsia, and Terranova da Sibari), Serre Mountains (Campoli, Lacina, Nardodipace, San Todaro, San Nicola da Crissa, Serra San Bruno, and Ursini), and Aspromonte Mountains (Cittanova, Monte Ulis, and Torrente Menta). Data presented in this table were based on the presence (1) or absence (0) of a butterfly species.

  • Column 1: Family
  • Column 2: Species
  • Column 3: Altilia
  • Column 4: Cerenzia
  • Column 5: Presso Grotta del Palombaro
  • Column 6: San Mauro Marchesato
  • Column 7: Santa Severina
  • Column 8: Scandale
  • Column 9: Grave Grubbo
  • Column 10: Arcavacata
  • Column 11: Contrada Salerni
  • Column 12: Cosenza
  • Column 13: Fiera di San Vito
  • Column 14: Lago di Tarsia
  • Column 15: Terranova da Sibari
  • Column 16: Campoli
  • Column 17: Lacina
  • Column 18: Nardodipace
  • Column 19: San Todaro
  • Column 20: San Nicola da Crissa
  • Column 21: Serra San Bruno
  • Column 22: Ursini
  • Column 23: Cittanova
  • Column 24: Monte Ulis
  • Column 25: Torrente Menta

4. Concluding Remarks

This Dataset Paper strongly increases the knowledge on the butterfly fauna of Calabria, the southernmost region of the Italian Peninsula, composed of 135 species [10]. New distributional data for 116 species of butterflies are provided, the 86% of the whole regional fauna. The presence of species was recorded for 136 localities, for a total of 815 new distributional records. To date, the most data rich paper for this region provided 745 distributional records for 44 localities [9].

There is a heterogeneous distribution of sampled localities on the regional territory. In fact, Sila and Catena Costiera Mountains appear to be better sampled than others.

Dataset Availability

The dataset associated with this Dataset Paper is dedicated to the public domain using the CC0 waiver and is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/176471/dataset.

Disclosure

The data presented here were collected by the author during several field trips and during several research activities of the author from 2005 to 2012. The data are unpublished and represent an important implementation of the knowledge on the butterfly fauna of Italy.

Conflict of Interests

The author declares that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

References

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