Clinicoepidemiology of Skin Diseases in Children Seen at the University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, MadagascarRead the full article
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Trichloroacetic Acid Peeling for Treating Photoaging: A Systematic Review
Photoaging can significantly contribute to lower quality of life. Medium-deep peeling using trichloroacetic acid allows controlled keratocoagulation through the dermis and into the dermal papillary layer that is effective for skin rejuvenation. The purpose of this article is to give updates regarding the efficacy, possible adverse events, and patient satisfaction of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling for skin rejuvenation by assessing various photoaging parameters. A systematic review of prospective trial articles collected from PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus databases was conducted on November 2, 2020. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on the photoaging parameters used by each study. Adverse events and patient satisfaction as the secondary outcome were assessed based on patients-perceived improvements. Five studies included three randomized comparison studies and two prospective cohort studies. These studies show that TCA peeling significantly improve the cosmesis of photoaged facial skin. Low concentration is effective for superficial sun damage. Medium-depth peels using a higher concentration of TCA or as combination therapy are effective as skin resurfacing agents to reduce wrinkles. Some adverse effects may occur but usually resolve within weeks. Overall patients were satisfied with the treatment result. An equivalent basic skin preparation such as topical retinoic acid skin priming prior to intervention is necessary for more objective comparison. Further research studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up period are required. This evidence suggests that TCA peeling is effective in photoaging treatment, either as monotherapy or as combination therapy with other modalities.
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) Survey toward Skin Cancer among Ecuadorian Population
Background. Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers, and melanoma is a highly preventable cancer. In Ecuador, few studies have evaluated the awareness levels of the population about the disease. For this reason, the objective of this study was to measure the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding skin cancer and its determining factors. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis using an online self-assessment questionnaire containing 40 questions was delivered. A total of 537 participants were included in this study. Knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were assigned to each participant based on the number of correct or appropriate responses. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results. In total, 75% of participants referenced knowledge of the harmful effects related to noncontrolled solar exposure. Concerning sunscreen, 76.7% knew the reason for using it. The female group was 1.68 times more likely to get a higher score than the male group, and the groups between 61–70 and 71–80 years were 0.30 and 0.17 times less likely to get a higher score compared with the less than 20-years-old group, respectively. Conclusions. The findings of this study indicate the requirement to increase the population’s knowledge about skin cancer and possible protection measures. For this reason, the prevention and health promotion programs at a national level from primary healthcare centers are recommended. Due to the limitation of the representativeness of the sample, the use of more studies among Ecuadorian residents of the low socioeconomic level and replication in different provinces of Ecuador is justified.
Contributing Factors and Outcome after Cryotherapy of Molluscum Contagiosum among Patients Attending Tertiary Hospital, Northern Tanzania: A Descriptive Prospective Cohort Study
Background. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a benign infection caused by a member of the Poxviridae family, molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The contributing factors for MCV infection are different in different populations and study areas. Few studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of cryotherapy in the treatment of MC. The study’s objectives were to determine contributing factors and outcome after cryotherapy of MC among patients attending a tertiary hospital in Northern Tanzania. Methods. A hospital-based cohort study was conducted at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre (RDTC) from September 2018 to August 2019, involving all patients clinically diagnosed with MC. We used a consecutive sampling method to recruit study participants. We treated all participants with cryotherapy and assessed them after two weeks. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21. Results. There were 49 patients with MC who agreed to participate in this study with a median age of 8 (IQR 3–22). We found 18.4% of patients with active atopic dermatitis (AD) had MC while those with a history of atopic diseases (Ad) were 32%, and 22.4% had a history of using immunosuppressive drugs. The clearance rate of cryotherapy on MC lesions was found to be 94%. Hypopigmentation was the commonest adverse effect. Conclusion. The findings of this study show that AD and immunosuppression may be contributing to MC development. Based on the clearance rate results, cryotherapy has shown to be effective and may be used in the treatment of MC.
Anti-Inflammatory and Restorative Effects of Olives in Topical Application
Background and Objective. Olive oil is used as a traditional treatment for wounds, sores, and infections, and the effectiveness of topical use and absence of side effects have been reported in various clinical trials. The present study is an overview of the anti-inflammatory properties of olive oil in its topical application for various skin diseases and wounds. Methods. A literature search was conducted (1990–2021) in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SID, IranDoc, and Magiran databases. From the 102 reviewed articles, 17 articles were selected to be included in the current article. Results. Various forms of olive have long been used to accelerate the healing of various wounds and skin damage such as diabetic foot ulcers, atopic dermatitis, diaper dermatitis, episiotomy wound, and nipple ulcer but there are still no credible documents or articles that provide reliable evidence of topical use. Conclusion. According to the information obtained from the articles reviewed, olive oil appears to be an effective, safe, and available treatment. This study suggests that olive oil is an alternative remedy to minimize the frequent use of chemical-based treatments. More research may be beneficial to reach certainty in terms of curative properties of olive oil in similar or different injuries in different populations.
Effectiveness and Safety of Abrocitinib in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Background. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritic, intense itching, and eczematous lesions affecting about 25% of children and 2% to 3% of adults worldwide. Abrocitinib is a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase-1 (JAK1) enzyme inhibiting the inflammatory process. Therefore, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of abrocitinib for moderate-to-severe AD. Methods. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and EczemATrials till Feb 1, 2021, for reliable trials. The analysis was conducted using an inverse-variance method. The results were pooled as mean difference/event rate and 95% confidence interval. Results. Abrocitinib 100 mg and 200 mg were associated with higher IGA response, EASI-50% responders, EASI-75% responders, EASI-90% responders, number of participants with at least 4-point improvements in NRS, and quality of life measured by DLQI and CDLQI than placebo. Also, 100 mg and 200 mg were associated with lower SCORAD index, %BSA, PSAAD index, and POEM index than placebo. Abrocitinib 100 mg and 200 mg were not associated with adverse events such as upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, dermatitis, atopic, any serious adverse events, and death. Conclusion. Abrocitinib in dose 100 mg or 200 mg is an effective, well-tolerated, and promising drug in treating patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. However, the analysis favored the efficacy of abrocitinib 200 mg over 100 mg, but side effects such as nausea and headache are likely to occur more with 200 mg.
Investigation of IL-17A Serum Levels in Patients with Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Background. Role of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in carcinogenesis and cancer growth is controversial. Although some researches support its antitumor activity, some others suggest that it promotes the growth and development of different types of cancer including skin cancer by activation of STAT3. Although the function of the cytokines such as IL-17A has been extensively studied in various types of cancer, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has not received much attention. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the serum levels of IL-17A in NMSC patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed on 60 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as 57 age-sex matched healthy individuals as control group. Measurement of IL-17A serum levels in both case and control groups was performed by a commercially reliable sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. In this study, we observed that IL-17A serum levels in NMSC patients were significantly higher than the control group . Also, both BCC and SCC patients had higher levels of IL-17A in their sera in comparison to the controls ( and , respectively). However, there was no significant difference between SCC and BCC patients regarding serum levels of IL-17A. Conclusion. According to our results, it can be concluded that IL-17A may play a role in inducing the growth and progression of NMSC and it can be used as a therapeutic target in these patients in future.