Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and Microbiota: Etiopathogenesis and Potential New Therapeutic TargetsRead the full article
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Facial Papulopustular Eruption during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Patients Treated with EGFR Inhibitors
Papulopustular rash (PPR) is the most frequent cutaneous adverse event during treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRis). Although often mild in severity, it can impair patients’ quality of life and may also be a reason for discontinuing or changing the dose of the antineoplastic treatment. During COVID-19 pandemics, the use of surgical masks drastically increased and it had an impact on the face skin microenvironment, favoring the worsening of dermatological pathologies. We reported the relapse of PPR in patients treated with EGFR inhibitors who consistently wore face masks (>6 hours/day). All the patients developed the PPR within 6 months of starting mask use. Compared to the PPR occurred previously, after mask use, the skin eruption was more severe and affected mainly those regions of the face which came into contact with the mask. Patients received topical or systemic treatment, obtaining complete response in 65.7% of the cases. The establishment of an early treatment for the PPR allows continuing the oncologic treatment, without any suspension which could result in a decreased oncologic outcome. In conclusion, when using these devices, it is recommended to use special precautions, particularly in oncologic patients, by using a daily prophylactic skincare and replacing masks regularly with regular and frequent breaks.
Herpes Zoster after COVID-19 Infection or Vaccination: A Prospective Cohort Study in a Tertiary Dermatology Clinic
Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) has been observed to occur after COVID-19 infection and vaccination; however, knowledge regarding the demographic data, clinical presentations, and treatment outcomes of HZ is limited. Objective. To compare the demographic data, clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes of patients with and without HZ within 14 days of COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Methods. This prospective cohort study involving patients diagnosed with cutaneous HZ was conducted at a dermatology clinic from October 2021 to January 2023. Results. Among a total of 232 patients with HZ, the median age was 62.0 years and 59.1% were female. HZ developed in 23 (9.9%) and four (1.7%) patients after COVID-19 vaccination and infection, respectively. The mean duration from vaccination and the median duration from infection to HZ onset were 5.7 and 8.5 days, respectively. The proportion of female patients was significantly higher in the group of patients with COVID-19 vaccination or infection than in those without such a history ( = 0.035). Patients who developed HZ following the recent COVID-19 infection had a median age of 42.5 years, which was lower than that of the other groups. Dissemination occurred in 8.7% of the patients after COVID-19 vaccination. HZ recurrence was reported in five cases, of which 80% had been vaccinated or infected with COVID-19 during the previous 21 days. All patients had similar durations of antiviral treatment, crust-off time, and duration of neuralgia. Conclusions. HZ after COVID-19 vaccination is more frequently observed in females, while HZ after COVID-19 infection tends to occur in younger patients. Disseminated HZ is more common in patients recently vaccinated against COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccination or infection may trigger recurrent HZ infection.
Characterizing Granuloma Annulare in 73 Pediatric Patients
Background. Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common, benign, idiopathic inflammatory dermatosis. Aside from case reports and small studies, there are limited data about the characteristics of GA in children. Objective. This study aimed to better characterize the epidemiologic and clinical features, triggering factors, disease associations, and outcomes of GA in the pediatric population. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of 73 pediatric patients diagnosed with GA at the University of Rochester Medical Center over a 7-year period. Results. The most common subtype was localized GA (71.2%, n = 52), followed by subcutaneous (also known as “deep GA”; 16.4%, n = 12) and generalized (12.3%, n = 9) subtypes. Over 90% of patients had idiopathic GA, with the remaining patients reporting viral infection or trauma as triggers. Half of the patients studied had comorbid conditions, most frequently atopic dermatitis (17.8%, n = 13), obesity (9.59%, n = 7), asthma (6.85%, n = 5), and allergic rhinitis (6.85%, n = 5). The median duration of the disease was 11.00 months (interquartile range (IQR) 15.75 months); generalized GA had the shortest duration (median 10.00 months, IQR 15.50 months), while subcutaneous GA had the longest duration (median 12.00 months and IQR 29.00 months). Although recurrence rates for subcutaneous and generalized GA were high at 45.5% and 33.3%, respectively, most patients achieved clearance or improvement with treatment. Conclusion. Most cases of GA in our study were idiopathic, with no clear differences between GA subtypes and associated comorbidities. Topical steroids were the most prescribed treatment with mixed efficacy.
Open-Label Observational Study of a Topical Formulation of Calcium Spirulan Contained in a Defined Extract of the Microalga Spirulina platensis in the Treatment of Children with Molluscum Contagiosum
Background. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common viral skin infection primarily affecting children which is difficult to treat using available therapeutic approaches. The sulfated polysaccharide named calcium spirulan (Ca-SP) has demonstrated antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus in keratinocytes in vitro, and a cream containing 1.5% Ca-SP and 1% of a defined microalgae extract (Spiralin®) effectively prevented herpes labialis in a trial with susceptible individuals. This observational study aimed to show antiviral effects of a similar formulation (Spirularin® VS) against MC in children. Methods. Children with active MC lesions were treated with Spirularin® VS cream twice daily on affected skin over several months and asked to return for follow-up visits after 1 to 3 months. Clinical status of MC infection was documented at baseline and follow-up visits. Results. Of the 31 children enrolled in the study, 26 completed treatment and returned for control visits. Spirularin® VS cream was applied twice daily over a period of 1 to 9 months (mean treatment duration 3.9 months). 19/26 (73.1%) children achieved complete clearance of MC lesions with no clinical evidence of bacterial skin infection during treatment. No irritative skin reactions or unpleasant symptoms were observed or reported. Conclusion. This open-label observational study suggests that a cream formulation containing 1.5% Ca-SP and 1% Spiralin® may be an effective and safe treatment option for children with active MC lesions. The high rate of complete clearance of MC lesions and lack of adverse reactions warrant further investigation in larger, controlled trials.
Glove-Induced Hand Dermatitis: A Study in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia
Skin damage among healthcare workers has been reported by many centers around the world. Occupational hand dermatitis is one of the most commonly known occupational skin diseases and a socially significant health issue. The use of gloves is one of the risk factors for the occurrence and/or aggravation of hand dermatitis. This cross-sectional study involved healthcare workers in 14 referral hospitals for COVID-19 throughout Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed to the participants, which consisted of the subject’s characteristics, glove-related skin problems, history of glove use, and clinical history. This study involved a total of 845 healthcare workers. Approximately 156 healthcare workers (18.46%) had glove-induced hand dermatitis during the pandemic. Itchy skin was the most common symptom (44.23%), and the palm was the most frequently complained area (48.72%). There was a significant association between glove use and glove-induced hand dermatitis among healthcare workers. In particular, equal to or more than 2 hours per day of glove use was significantly associated with hand dermatitis. Glove-induced hand dermatitis also had a significant association with the subject’s history of atopic dermatitis and previous history of hand dermatitis. The use of gloves by healthcare workers should be considered carefully, especially in individuals at increased risk, including those who use gloves for 2 hours or more per day and those who have a history of atopic or hand dermatitis, in order to prevent the incidence of glove-induced hand dermatitis among healthcare workers, as well as to provide a safe working environment.
Ultrasonographic Characteristics in the Fingers and Other Superficial Glomus Tumours
Glomus tumours are painful superficial tumours, and ultrasonography is an extremely useful and noninvasive diagnostic technique for superficial organs. In this study, we retrospectively examined glomus tumours using ultrasonography. Among 18 patients histopathologically diagnosed with glomus tumours via ultrasonography, we observed five different development sites: subungual areas or those surrounding the nail bed (12), other areas on the finger surface (3), abdominal wall (1), upper arm (1), and forearm (1). The ultrasonographic images revealed significant differences in tumour size, indicating that tumours on other body surfaces tended to be smaller than those on patients’ fingers ( < 0.01). The depth/width ratios of tumours on the other body surfaces were significantly higher than those on the fingers ( < 0.05). The tumours showed a regular shape (72.2%) and clear border (100%). Furthermore, most tumours were low-echo tumours with a diameter of up to 15 mm, clear margins, and no lateral shadows. Abundant blood flow and vessels in and out of the tumours were also observed. In conclusion, our study describes the ultrasonographic characteristics of glomus tumours and reveals that they cannot be ruled out when diagnosing small painful subcutaneous tumours.