Different Approaches to Atopic Dermatitis by Allergists, Dermatologists, and PediatriciansRead the full article
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Microneedling in Combination with Topical Pimecrolimus 1% versus Topical Pimecrolimus 1% for the Treatment of Refractory Stable Vitiligo: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Objective. Vitiligo is a common, autoimmune disease that results in the destruction of the melanocytes and manifests as depigmented macules on various areas of the skin. Numerous treatment options have been proposed for vitiligo. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of microneedling plus topical pimecrolimus 1% versus the sole use of topical pimecrolimus 1% for the treatment of vitiligo. Methods. This clinical trial was conducted on 30 skin lesions on 15 Al-Zahra hospital patients. Each patient had two similar lesions in the limb area, and each lesion was considered a separate treatment group. The left or right side of the patient’s lesion was randomly assigned to receive microneedling plus topical pimecrolimus for three months, while the other side received only topical pimecrolimus 1%. As part of the follow-up, digital photography was taken at the baseline and biweekly for three months after treatment and six months’ follow-up. The following methods were used to evaluate the results: DLQI questionnaires, patient satisfaction questionnaires, and two independent dermatologists comparing the improvement rate for each group. Results. Topical pimecrolimus 1% treatment led to unsatisfactory results, whereas the combination of microneedling and topical pimecrolimus1% treatment produced a more favorable overall outcome (). Conclusion. This study established that combination therapy results in more significant patient improvement. Additionally, one patient experienced mild skin irritation as a side effect of topical pimecrolimus.
Comorbidities and Environmental Factors Associated with Atopic Dermatitis in Children and Adults in Dermatology-Venereology in Cotonou, Benin
Introduction. The objective of this work was to document the comorbidities and environmental factors associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) in dermatology Venereology in Cotonou. Methods. A cross-sectional, prospective, and analytical study included, from January 2016 to December 2018, in the Dermatology-Venereology Department of the National Teaching Hospital Hubert Koutoukou Maga (CNHU-HKM) of Cotonou, children and adults after free and informed consent, in whom the diagnosis of AD was retained according to the criteria of the United Kingdom Working Party. Severity was assessed using SCORAD (severity scoring of atopic dermatitis). Results. The overall prevalence of AD was 7.7%. AD was more frequent in children (56.8% and 40.6%) and adults (59.8% and 37.4%) from urban and periurban areas (0.003 < ). It was more frequent in children who regularly dewormed and those with complete vaccination (0.001 < ). In 54.8% of children and 58.9% of adults, flare-ups occurred during the warm season. The main associated comorbidities were rhinitis and conjunctivitis in both children (49.7% and 36.1%, respectively) and adults (32.7% and 26.2%, respectively). The main triggering factors in children were heat (43.2%), pneumallergens (28.4%), and skin irritants (22.6%). In adults, we noted skin irritants (58.9%), heat (47.7%), and psychological factors (34.6%). In adults, the use of detergent soaps was associated with lichenified and severe AD (0.003 < ) and that of lightening soaps with acute AD (). Conclusion. AD in the Dermatology-Venereology Department of the CNHU-HKM of Cotonou was associated with comorbidities. It was influenced by environmental factors related to the tropical climate and by skin irritants or allergens.
Interrelationships between Skin Structure, Function, and Microbiome of Pregnant Females and Their Newborns: Study Protocol for a Prospective Cohort Study
Background. Pregnancy leads to several skin changes, but evidence about structural and functional skin changes is scarce. Findings on skin structure and function in children in their first year reveal rapid skin maturation, but evidence indicates that in particular, water holding and transport mechanisms are different from adults. Important questions include whether maternal cutaneous properties predict infant skin condition, and if so, how. This is especially relevant for the skin’s microbiome because it closely interacts with the host and is assumed to play a role in many skin diseases. Therefore, the study objective is to explore characteristics of skin and hair of pregnant women and their newborns during pregnancy and in the first six months after delivery and their associations. Methods. The study has an observational longitudinal design. We are recruiting pregnant females between 18 and 45 years using advertisement campaigns in waiting areas of gynecologists and hospital’s outpatient services. A final sample size of n = 100 women is the target. We perform noninvasive, standardized skin, hair, and skin microbiome measurements. We establish the baseline visit during pregnancy until at the latest four weeks before delivery. We schedule follow-up visits four weeks and six months after birth for mothers and their newborns. We will calculate descriptive statistical methods using frequencies and associations over time depending on scale levels of the measurements. Discussion. The majority of previous studies that have investigated infants’ skin microbiome and its associations used cross-sectional designs and focused on selected characteristics in small samples. In our longitudinal study, we will characterize a broad range of individual and environmental characteristics of mothers and their newborns to evaluate interrelationships with skin parameters and their changes over time. Considering the combination of these multiple variables and levels will allow for a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationship of the newborn’s skin maturation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04759924).
A Literature Review: The History of Psychological Impact of Illness amongst People with Leprosy (PwL) in Countries across the Globe
Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease for which effective therapy has been long since invented. Thus, the morbidity has been decreased as technology has advanced, but the permanent disability has continuously generated stigma for centuries. The stigma causes the emergence of a poor psychological impact on people with leprosy (PwL). These impacts make new PwL reluctant to get appropriate therapy for their initial symptoms and are, thus, troublesome in accomplishing the goals of the leprosy elimination program. The aim of this review is to provide the history of psychological impact amongst PwL in countries across the globe. Methods. This is a literature review study. A keyword-based search was conducted in digital libraries. Articles reporting on PwL’s psychology and related issues, such as quality of life, opportunity of building a marriage, and getting hired, were included. The data were presented based on a leprosy history timeline with cutoff points, namely, the invention of promin (1941) and multidrug treatment (1970). Results. In total, 38 studies were included in this review. These studies showed that PwL’s knowledge towards leprosy has been increasing; nevertheless, their attitude is still lacking. The emotional response was described by various negative feelings that had persistently occurred. These poor psychological impacts were followed by poor treatment-seeking behavior and resulted in low quality of life. Conclusions. From year to year, the PwL’s knowledge about leprosy has been getting better; nevertheless, their attitude towards the disease is still poor. The emotional response, social participation, and quality of life of PwL are persistently poor due to the persistent stigma.
Intralesional Bleomycin for the Treatment of Resistant Palmoplantar and Periungual Warts
Introduction. Periungual, palmar, and plantar warts are difficult to treat with poor treatment response. Intralesional (IL) bleomycin has shown promising results for their treatment in a few reports. However, we need further evidence before opting it for treating difficult sites and resistant warts. Hence, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy and safety of IL bleomycin for the treatment of resistant palmoplantar and periungual warts. Methods. In this retrospective study, we included all patients who were given IL bleomycin for warts over a year. Maximum three sittings of bleomycin (1 mg/ml) were given monthly, and they were followed up for 3 months after the procedure. The response was categorized as complete, near-complete, significant, moderate, mild, and no clearance for 100%, 75–99%, 50–74%, 25–49%, 1–25%, and 0% clearance, respectively. Results. Out of 29 patients, follow-up details were available only in 19 patients (53 warts). The mean duration was 2.5 ± 1.47 years. The number of past interventions ranged from 2–4. Wart clearance after the first intervention was complete in 36.84%, near-complete in 26.31%, significant in 26.31%, and moderate in 10.53%. Wart clearance after the last intervention was complete in 89.47% and near-complete in 10.52% of patients. However, during 3 months of follow-up after the last injection, 15.78% had a recurrence. None of them had severe local and systemic side effects. Conclusions. IL bleomycin could be a better treatment option for the treatment of resistant and difficult warts. However, we observed a higher recurrence rate even in a shorter follow-up. Hence, we need further studies with larger samples.
Clinicoepidemiology of Skin Diseases in Children Seen at the University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, Madagascar
Introduction. The child’s skin diseases are common and very diverse. Many studies concerning pediatric dermatoses have been carried out in Africa and the rest of the world. Few epidemioclinical data reflect these skin diseases in children, especially in the east coast of Madagascar. We aim to describe the pattern skin diseases among children seen at the University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, Madagascar. Patients and Methods. A retrospective study over a 3-year period from January 2017 to December 2019 was conducted in children seen in the Dermatology Department of University Hospital Center Morafeno, Toamasina, with skin diseases. Results. During the study period, 347 children out of the 1584 new patients were retained with a sex ratio of 0.86. The mean age was 6.4 years old. The main diseases identified were skin infectious diseases (43, 23%), allergic dermatoses (24.21%), and autonomous dermatosis (15.56%). Conclusion. Our study revealed the importance of infectious and allergic dermatoses in Toamasina. It is necessary to carry out simple preventive actions such as hygiene.