Table 3: Effect of type I interferon on basal cell carcinoma.

Type of effectDescription of effectReferences

AntiproliferativeIFN- upregulates opioid growth factor receptor expression in BCC cell lines.[29, 30]

ProapoptoticIFN- leads to coexpression of CD95L and CD95 in nodular BCCs, leading to cell death by suicide and fratricide.[31]

ImmunomodulatoryIFN-α leads to decreased mRNA levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in BCCs.
Treatment with IFN-α led to increased proportion of CD3+ cells within peri- and intratumoral infiltrates of BCCs as well as an increase in the CD4/CD8 ratio in both peri- and intratumoral infiltrates.