Dermatology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2017 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Efficacy of a New Cosmetic Formulation in the Treatment of Skin Photoaging Thu, 12 Jan 2017 09:09:54 +0000 Objective. Mechanism of action of cosmetic products is not often studied. The aim of this study is to determine the histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical changes of a new cosmetic formulation. Methods. Prospective, single-blind, patient-controlled, randomized study in 10 volunteers with mild to moderate skin photoaging on the back of their hands. The product was applied on one hand and a standard cream on the other hand, twice a day for three months. Standardized photographs were taken on basal (T0) and final visit (T1) and skin biopsies were performed. Changes on histological and immunohistochemical markers were studied. Subjective clinical changes were determined. Results. After treatment, a 26.3% improvement on epidermal thickness was detected and a significant increase on collagens I and III, elastin, and fibronectin fibers was achieved (). As the expression of MMPs remained stable, this improvement of dermal matrix was attributed to the stimulation of their synthesis. A significant clinical improvement on the treated hand was obtained, compared to control hand. Conclusion. This new cosmetic product with combination of three registered technologies (IFC-CAF, WGC, and RetinSphere), focused on regenerating dermal matrix and activating proliferation of skin cells, has shown to be efficient in the reversion of skin photoaging. M. T. Truchuelo, N. Jiménez, L. Miguel-Gomez, A. Hermosa, N. Sánchez-Neila, and J. Cuevas Copyright © 2017 M. T. Truchuelo et al. All rights reserved. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal Thu, 24 Nov 2016 09:38:28 +0000 Background. Superficial mycosis is a common fungal infection worldwide, mainly caused by dermatophytes. However, the prevalence of species varies geographically. In addition, fungal treatment is best guided according to species isolated. This study was carried out to determine the clinical as well as mycological profile of superficial mycoses in a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. Methods. This was a prospective case-control laboratory based study conducted over a period of six months from January to June 2014 at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 200 specimens were collected from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses. The specimens were macroscopically as well as microscopically examined. The growth was observed up to 4 weeks. Results. Out of total 200 specimens from the patients suspected of superficial mycoses, tinea corporis 50 (25%) was most common clinical types. KOH mount was positive in 89 (44.5%) and culture was positive in 111 (55.5%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes 44 (39.6%) was the most common isolate. Conclusions. The diagnostic yields of KOH mount and culture were found to be complementary to each other. Thus both the methods added with clinical findings are equally important to establish superficial mycosis. Sundar Khadka, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Dinesh Binod Pokharel, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Subhash Dhital, and Basista Rijal Copyright © 2016 Sundar Khadka et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Effect of Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B Phototherapy and Methotrexate on MicroRNA (146a) Levels in Blood of Psoriatic Patients” Wed, 09 Nov 2016 06:52:31 +0000 Amal Abou El-Fadle, Asmaa M. Ele-Refaei, and Fatma M. El-Esawy Copyright © 2016 Amal Abou El-Fadle et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcome of a Novel Anti-CD6 Biologic Itolizumab in Patients of Psoriasis with Comorbid Conditions Wed, 02 Nov 2016 06:13:35 +0000 Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune mediated, inflammatory disease of skin characterized by red patches enclosed with white scales and affects 2-3% of people in the world. Topical therapy, phototherapy, and systemic therapy were employed for management of disease from many last decades. However, long term uses of these agents are associated with unwanted effects and toxicities. Recently, Itolizumab has been developed as world’s first anti-CD6 humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody for the management of moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis in India. Here we are presenting the response indicated by Itolizumab in 7 Indian patients having moderate-to-severe psoriasis with severe comorbidities and who were intolerant/nonresponding to conventional therapies. Vinay Singh Copyright © 2016 Vinay Singh. All rights reserved. Comparison of European Standard Patch Test Results of 330 Patients from an Occupational Diseases Hospital Tue, 11 Oct 2016 14:51:24 +0000 Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD) is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38%) patients were female and 204 (62%) were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13) years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55%) patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126) and potassium dichromate (39/204) were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (). Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126) and in men was manufacturing (80/204). Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations. Özge Gündüz, Aslı Aytekin, Engin Tutkun, and Hınç Yılmaz Copyright © 2016 Özge Gündüz et al. All rights reserved. Recurrence of Dysplastic Nevi Is Strongly Associated with Extension of the Lesions to the Lateral Margins and into the Deep Margins through the Hair Follicles in the Original Shave Removal Specimens Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:46:45 +0000 Melanocytic nevi, including dysplastic or atypical nevi (DN), can recur or persist following shave removal procedures, and recurrence may resemble melanoma, both clinically and histologically (pseudomelanoma). Recurrence may originate from proliferation of the remaining neoplastic melanocytes following incomplete removal. The present study determines the rate and etiology of this event. A cross-sectional analysis of 110 excision specimens showing histological recurrence was performed, and these specimens were compared to the slides of the original shave specimens showing mildly atypical DN. In the second portion of the study, a retrospective review of 167 cases with biopsy-proven mildly atypical DN which were followed up for at least two years was conducted to determine the rate of recurrence/persistence. When followed up for two years, DN, with positive shave margins, defined by extension or very close extension (≤0.2 mm) of the lesions to the lateral margins and into the deep margins through the hair follicles in the shave removal specimens, have a higher probability of recurrence than DN with negative (or clear) margins (odds ratio (OR) = 158; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 36.62–683; ). The overall rate of histologically confirmed recurrence/persistence was approximately 10%. Amin Maghari Copyright © 2016 Amin Maghari. All rights reserved. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India Wed, 21 Sep 2016 14:22:50 +0000 Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs. Deepak Dimri, Venkatashiva Reddy B, and Amit Kumar Singh Copyright © 2016 Deepak Dimri et al. All rights reserved. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study Wed, 29 Jun 2016 14:52:29 +0000 Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups () or Rh () between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. Sedigheh Bakhtiari, Parviz Toosi, Somayyeh Azimi, Nafiseh Esmaili, Ali Montazami, and Nasrin Rafieian Copyright © 2016 Sedigheh Bakhtiari et al. All rights reserved. Pattern of Pediatric Dermatoses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal Mon, 09 May 2016 11:26:49 +0000 Pediatric dermatoses are one of the most common presentations in a dermatology clinic and reflect the health and hygiene status of children. The incidence and severity of these skin lesions are influenced by geographical area, seasonal and cultural factors, and socioeconomic status. This study was done to show the prevalence of different pediatric dermatoses in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Chart reviews of children aged one day to 17 years, presenting to Universal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal, from 1 September 2014 to 30 august 2015, were done. Descriptive analysis and two-sided chi-square test were done. Among 23992 patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department (OPD), 5398 (22.5%) were of pediatric age groups (male/female: 1.2/1); most of them belonged to young teens and teenagers (; 61.3%). Three most common dermatoses were fungal infections (18.5%), eczema (14.4%), and acne (10.1%). Fungal infections (; 65.4%) and acne (; 51.9%) were common in males, whereas eczema (; 51.7%) was more common in females. Fungal infection (), eczema (), pigmentation disorders (), and acne () were significantly more during summer, while scabies was more in winter (). Dermatophytosis, pyoderma, and warts comprised frequently occurring fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, respectively. Yogesh Poudyal, Annu Ranjit, Santosh Pathak, and Nagendra Chaudhary Copyright © 2016 Yogesh Poudyal et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison between the Effects of Glucantime, Topical Trichloroacetic Acid 50% plus Glucantime, and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser plus Glucantime on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions Mon, 11 Apr 2016 13:02:25 +0000 Background. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Pentavalent antimonial drugs have been the first line of therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis for many years. However, the cure rate of these agents is still not favorable. This study was carried out to compare the efficacies of intralesional glucantime with topical trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA 50%) + glucantime and fractional carbon dioxide laser + glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into three groups of 30 to be treated with intralesional injection of glucantime, a combination of topical TCA 50% and glucantime, or a combination of fractional laser and glucantime. The overall clinical improvement and changes in sizes of lesions and scars were assessed and compared among three groups. Results. The mean duration of treatment was weeks in all patients (range: 2–12 weeks) and , , and weeks in glucantime, topical TCA plus glucantime, and fractional laser plus glucantime groups, respectively (). Complete improvement was observed in 10 (38.5%), 27 (90%), and 20 (87%) patients of glucantime, glucantime + TCA, and glucantime + laser groups, respectively (). Conclusion. Compared to glucantime alone, the combination of intralesional glucantime and TCA 50% or fractional CO2 laser had significantly higher and faster cure rate in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Fariba Jaffary, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Amirhossein Siadat, Elaheh Haftbaradaran, Nazli Ansari, and Elham Ahmadi Copyright © 2016 Fariba Jaffary et al. All rights reserved. Jumihaidokuto (Shi-Wei-Ba-Du-Tang), a Kampo Formula, Decreases the Disease Activity of Palmoplantar Pustulosis Sun, 10 Apr 2016 09:46:06 +0000 Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic skin disease characterized by sterile intraepidermal pustules associated with erythematous scaling on the palms and soles. Jumihaidokuto is a traditional herbal medicine composed of ten medical plants and has been given to patients with suppurative skin disease in Japan. This study investigated the effect of jumihaidokuto on the disease activity in PPP patients (). PPP patients were given jumihaidokuto (EKT-6; 6.0 g per day) for 4 to 8 weeks in addition to their prescribed medications. The results showed that the palmoplantar pustular psoriasis area and severity index (PPPASI) was decreased after the administration of jumihaidokuto (). Therefore, Jumihaidokuto is seemingly effective against PPP. Megumi Mizawa, Teruhiko Makino, Chieko Inami, and Tadamichi Shimizu Copyright © 2016 Megumi Mizawa et al. All rights reserved. Altered Levels of Serum Zinc and Cadmium in Patients with Chronic Vesiculobullous Hand and Feet Dermatitis Wed, 06 Apr 2016 08:18:50 +0000 Micronutrients serve many important functions in our body and altered levels of heavy and trace metals are associated with cutaneous and systemic disorders. Vesicular palmoplantar eczema is an entity whose etiopathogenesis is a mystery. In this prospective case-noncase study blood levels of Zinc and Cadmium in 37 patients of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis were estimated and compared with 40 noncases with similar age and gender distributions. Low serum Zinc levels were found in patients as compared to noncases. The mean difference of serum Zinc between the case and noncase groups was 27.26; the mean value of serum Zinc between the two groups was statistically significant (). However, elevated Cadmium levels were detected in only 5 patients and in none of the noncases. The mean concentration of serum Cadmium was  μg/dL, with a range of 1.90–2.80 μg/dL for the five cases in whom Cadmium was detected. Various toxic and trace metals can interact by influencing each other’s absorption, retention, distribution, and bioavailability in the body. The clinical significance of this finding lies in the possible beneficial role of Zinc supplementation in the therapy of chronic vesiculobullous hand dermatitis. Swastika Suvirya, Alpna Thakur, S. S. Pandey, S. K. Tripathi, and Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi Copyright © 2016 Swastika Suvirya et al. All rights reserved. Promising Option for Treatment of Striae Alba: Fractionated Microneedle Radiofrequency in Combination with Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:40:38 +0000 Background. A consistent treatment has not been proposed for treatment of Striae Alba (SA). The present study was designed to compare the fractionated microneedle radiofrequency (FMR) alone and in combination with fractional carbon dioxide laser (FMR + CO2) in the treatment of SA. Methods. Forty-eight pairs of SA from six patients were selected. Right or left SAs were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups. The surface area of the SA before and after treatment and clinical improvement using a four-point scale were measured at the baseline, after one and three months. Results. The mean age of the patients was years. The mean difference of the surface area between pre- and posttreatment in the FMR + CO2 group was significantly higher than that in the FMR group (). Clinical improvement scales showed significantly higher improvement in the FMR + CO2 group than in the FMR group in the first and second follow-up ( and 0.004, resp.). There were no major persistence side-effects in both groups. Conclusions. The results showed that FMR + CO2 laser was more effective than FMR alone in the treatment of SA. Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini, Shadi Behfar, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Shima Keyvan, and Mohsen Pourazizi Copyright © 2016 Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Topical Emu Oil on Burn Wounds in the Skin of Balb/c Mice Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:13:54 +0000 The goal of this study was to determine the effect of topical Emu oil on the healing of burn wounds and hair follicle restoration in superficial II-degree burns in the skin of Balb/c mice. Thirty-two male Balb/c mice with burns on the back of the neck were divided into two groups: The Emu oil group received topical Emu oil twice daily, whereas the control was left untreated. Skin biopsies were obtained on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 of the experiment. Then the specimens were viewed with Olympus SZX research microscope. The Emu oil treated burns were found to heal more slowly and inflammation lasted longer in this group. The number of hair follicles in the margins of the wounds increased through time in the Emu oil group compared to the control group. Also, the hair follicles in the Emu oil group were in several layers and seemed to be more active and mature. Moreover, Emu oil had a positive effect on fibrogenesis and synthesis of collagen. The findings indicate that although Emu oil delays the healing process, it has a positive effect on wound healing and it increases the number of hair follicles in the margins of the wound. Mohammad Afshar, Reza Ghaderi, Mahmoud Zardast, and Parvin Delshad Copyright © 2016 Mohammad Afshar et al. All rights reserved. Production of a Self-Aligned Scaffold, Free of Exogenous Material, from Dermal Fibroblasts Using the Self-Assembly Technique Wed, 09 Mar 2016 14:35:21 +0000 Many pathologies of skin, especially ageing and cancer, involve modifications in the matrix alignment. Such tissue reorganization could have impact on cell behaviour and/or more global biological processes. Tissue engineering provides accurate study model by mimicking the skin and it allows the construction of versatile tridimensional models using human cells. It also avoids the use of animals, which gave sometimes nontranslatable results. Among the various techniques existing, the self-assembly method allows production of a near native skin, free of exogenous material. After cultivating human dermal fibroblasts in the presence of ascorbate during two weeks, a reseeding of these cells takes place after elevation of the resulting stroma on a permeable ring and culture pursued for another two weeks. This protocol induces a clear realignment of matrix fibres and cells parallel to the horizon. The thickness of this stretched reconstructed tissue is reduced compared to the stroma produced by the standard technique. Cell count is also reduced. In conclusion, a new, easy, and inexpensive method to produce aligned tissue free of exogenous material could be used for fundamental research applications in dermatology. Stéphane Chabaud and Stéphane Bolduc Copyright © 2016 Stéphane Chabaud and Stéphane Bolduc. All rights reserved. Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone and Methylisothiazolinone Sensitivity in Hungary Mon, 07 Mar 2016 14:36:30 +0000 Background. Due to allowing of methylisothiazolinone (MI) in cosmetics, cleaning products, and paints, an epidemic of MI-hypersensitivity emerged. Patch testing Kathon CG® (3:1 mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, MCI/MI) does not correctly detect MI contact allergy, due to the low concentration of MI in the test material. Methods. A retrospective survey was performed to estimate the prevalence of MCI/MI hypersensitivity in 14693 patients tested consecutively between 1993 and 2014. Moreover, currently 314 patients were prospectively tested with the allergens MCI/MI and with MI during one year. Results. MCI/MI hypersensitivity increased retrospectively from 0.5% to 6.0%. By current prospective testing we detected 25 patients (8%) with MCI/MI and/or MI positive reactions. Out of the 25 patients 10 were only MCI/MI positive, 9 were only MI positive, and 6 were MCI/MI and MI positive. If MI had not been tested separately, MI contact allergy would have missed in 36% of all detected cases and in 2.8% of the total 314 patients. Conclusions. The frequency of MCI/MI hypersensitivity is increasing also in Hungary. We confirm that, in order to detect MI contact allergy, it needs to be tested separately. A further increase of MI hypersensitivity might be expected in the future as products containing MI are still widely available. Györgyi Pónyai, Ilona Németh, and Erzsébet Temesvári Copyright © 2016 Györgyi Pónyai et al. All rights reserved. Clinicoepidemiological Study of Different Types of Warts Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:54:15 +0000 Background. Warts are cutaneous and, sometimes, mucosal lesions caused by one of the several human papilloma viruses. Aim. Assessment of the clinicoepidemiological aspects of warts. Materials and Methods. One hundred consecutive patients of warts presenting to the department of our institution were assigned two broad locational groups: genital and nongenital warts, the latter subdivided into common, plane, palmoplantar, mosaic, and digitate/filiform. Results. Ninety had nongenital and 10 had genital warts in our study; common (42%), palmoplantar (20%), and plane (18%) were the common types of the nongenital warts. All the genital warts were acuminate. In the second decade, the commonest age group, encompassed all patients of mosaic, 40% of palmoplantar, and 20% of genital warts. Overall male (66%) preponderance xisted. All cases of filiform warts were males. Mosaic warts affected females more commonly. Students (32%), laborers (28%), and housewives (16%) were the usual occupations. Cosmetic concern (92%), pain (16%), and itching (15%) were the common complaints. All patients of genital warts sought treatment within 6 months. Conclusions. Common, palmoplantar, and plane warts were the common types of nongenital warts. Overall prevalence peaked during the second decade but one-third of the cases of plane warts occurred during the first. Extremities were the most common sites (66.7%); face was the next commonly (23%) involved. Shruti S. Ghadgepatil, Sanjeev Gupta, and Yugal K. Sharma Copyright © 2016 Shruti S. Ghadgepatil et al. All rights reserved. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature Thu, 03 Mar 2016 13:17:18 +0000 The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed. Bilgen Gençler and Müzeyyen Gönül Copyright © 2016 Bilgen Gençler and Müzeyyen Gönül. All rights reserved. Macular Amyloidosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Sun, 14 Feb 2016 11:08:33 +0000 Background. Amyloidosis is extracellular precipitation of eosinophilic hyaline material of self-origin with special staining features and fibrillar ultrastructure. Macular amyloidosis is limited to the skin, and several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in this lesion suggests that this virus can play a role in pathogenesis of this disease. Objective. EBV DNA detection was done on 30 skin samples with a diagnosis of macular amyloidosis and 31 healthy skin samples in the margin of removed melanocytic nevi by using PCR. Results. In patients positive for beta-globin gene in PCR, BLLF1 gene of EBV virus was positive in 23 patients (8 patients in case and 15 patients in the control group). There was no significant difference in presence of EBV DNA between macular amyloidosis (3.8%) and control (23.8%) groups (). Conclusion. The findings of this study showed that EBV is not involved in pathogenesis of macular amyloidosis. Yalda Nahidi, Naser Tayyebi Meibodi, Zahra Meshkat, and Narges Nazeri Copyright © 2016 Yalda Nahidi et al. All rights reserved. Leprosy Continues to Occur in Hilly Areas of North India Sun, 24 Jan 2016 13:09:00 +0000 Background. The aim of present study was to describe the profile of leprosy patients attending the outpatient department of dermatology in tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, North India. Methodology. This descriptive retrospective study. Patient data at the time of diagnosis were retrieved onto a predesigned proforma, which concerned the following variables at the time of registration: age, sex, and residence. Newly registered outpatients leprosy cases between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. Results. It was found that 65 were multibacillary leprosy cases. Males constituted 62.8% of all leprosy cases. The majority (83.7%) belonged to the age group of 18–60 years. Of the total 48.8% of the new leprosy cases were from the Pauri district. The leprosy incidence rate in this population was 2.71 per 1000 patients. Conclusion. Leprosy still continues to be a communicable disease of concern. The lower incidence in women and children provokes the need to strengthen contact screening, early case detection, and referral activities in the population to sustain elimination. Deepak Dimri, Arti Gupta, and Amit Kumar Singh Copyright © 2016 Deepak Dimri et al. All rights reserved. Clinicoepidemiological Observational Study of Acquired Alopecias in Females Correlating with Anemia and Thyroid Function Wed, 20 Jan 2016 09:44:14 +0000 Alopecia can either be inherited or acquired; the latter, more common, can be diffuse, patterned, and focal, each having cicatricial and noncicatricial forms. This observational study of 135 cases in a semiurban Indian population aimed to detect the prevalence of various forms of acquired alopecia in females and correlate the same with levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. The majority (84, 62.2%) of our cases of alopecia had telogen effluvium followed by female pattern alopecia (32, 23.7%). Stress (86, 63.7%), topical application of chemicals (72, 53.3%), systemic medications for concurrent illnesses (62, 5%), and pregnancy (14, 10.3%) were the common exacerbating factors. Neither low hemoglobin (<12 gm%, 73.4%) nor low serum ferritin (<12 μg/L, 6.7%) was found to be statistically significant. A majority (90, 90.9%) of 99 cases with anemia (hemoglobin levels of <12 gm%) had serum ferritin levels >12 μg/L. Though lack of vitamin B12 testing was a limitation of our study, its deficiency could be the probable cause of iron deficiency as the majority (58, 64.4%) of these cases, as indeed majority (89, 65.4%) of our study population, were vegetarians. Thyroid disorders (23, 17%, including 9 newly diagnosed) were not of significance statistically. Kirti Deo, Yugal K. Sharma, Meenakshi Wadhokar, and Neha Tyagi Copyright © 2016 Kirti Deo et al. All rights reserved. Skin Protection Behaviors among Young Male Latino Day Laborers: An Exploratory Study Using a Social Cognitive Approach Mon, 04 Jan 2016 09:02:05 +0000 Latino Day Laborers (LDLs) are employed in occupations where multiple work hazards exist. One such hazard is the overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation for continuous periods of time. Regular sun exposure can put individuals at increased risk of developing skin cancers, especially without adequate protection. The purpose of this cross-sectional exploratory study was to use a social cognitive framework to assess skin protective behaviors among LDLs. A community-based nonrandom and purposive sample of LDLs was recruited in two states: Mississippi and Illinois. The study sample consisted of 137 male participants, of which the majority were of Mexican ancestry (72%). The average age was 35.40 () years. Results demonstrated that a substantial number of LDLs do not adequately practice sun protection behaviors on a regular basis. The skin cancer knowledge scores were very modest. The most frequently indicated barriers towards sun protection were “inconvenient,” “forget to use,” and “not being able to reapply sunscreen.” Overall, LDLs had moderate confidence in their abilities to adopt successful sun protection strategies. This study underscores the need for intervention programs aimed at LDLs to reduce extended time in the sun and increase use of sun protective measures when working outdoors. Javier F. Boyas, Vinayak K. Nahar, and Robert T. Brodell Copyright © 2016 Javier F. Boyas et al. All rights reserved. Cryoglobulinaemia in Egyptian Patients with Extrahepatic Cutaneous Manifestations of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Tue, 29 Dec 2015 12:35:41 +0000 Background. Hepatitis C is a global major health problem with extremely variable extrahepatic manifestations. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) shows a striking association with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and it is sometimes asymptomatic. The skin is a frequently involved target organ in MC. Objective. To investigate the prevalence of cryoglobulinaemia in a sample of Egyptian patients with cutaneous manifestations of chronic HCV infection and to correlate its presence with clinical criteria and liver function tests. Methods. One hundred and eighteen patients with skin manifestations of chronic compensated hepatitis C were included. Venous blood was tested for liver function tests and serum cryoglobulins. Results. Twelve patients (10.169%) were positive for serum cryoglobulins (2 with pruritus, 4 with vasculitic lesions, 3 with livedo reticularis, one with oral lichen, one with chronic urticaria, and another with Schamberg’s disease). Vasculitic lesions and livedo reticularis of the legs showed higher prevalence in cryoglobulin-positive than in cryoglobulin-negative patients. Presence of serum cryoglobulins did not relate to patients’ demographic or laboratory findings. Conclusions. Fortunately, MC is not markedly prevalent among Egyptians with cutaneous lesions of chronic hepatitis C, and cryopositivity was commonly, but not exclusively, detected with cutaneous vasculitis and livedo reticularis. Laboratory testing for cryoglobulins in every HCV patient is advisable for earlier MC detection and management. Doaa Salah Hegab and Mohammed Abd El Rahman Sweilam Copyright © 2015 Doaa Salah Hegab and Mohammed Abd El Rahman Sweilam. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Subcision for the Correction of the Prominent Nasolabial Folds Wed, 16 Dec 2015 11:31:54 +0000 Background. A prominent nasolabial fold (NLF) is a cosmetic problem. Currently, numerous therapeutic modalities are available for pronounced NLFs with variable efficacy. Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of subcision using a hypodermic needle for the correction of the prominent NLFs and its effect on skin elasticity. Methods. Sixteen patients with prominent NLFs underwent subcision. The investigators’ assessment of improvement and the patients’ satisfaction were both recorded 1 and 6 months after the procedure. Also, we evaluate the skin elasticity of NLFs before and after the treatment using a sensitive biometrologic device with the measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Results. Thirteen (81.25%) patients showed a moderate improvement at 1st month and 13 (81.25%) patients had at least a mild improvement at 6th month. There was no persistent side effect lasting more than a few days. Mean CRRT at 1 and 6 months after the treatment was significantly higher compared to the baseline. Conclusion. Subcision may be considered effective for the correction of pronounced NLFs. However, further controlled studies with larger sample size are necessary to assess the efficacy of this technique in particular with use of more objective assessment of skin biometric characteristics. This trial is registered with IRCT201108097270N1 (registered on January 27, 2012). R. M. Robati, F. Abdollahimajd, and A. M. Robati Copyright © 2015 R. M. Robati et al. All rights reserved. Decreased Circulating T Regulatory Cells in Egyptian Patients with Nonsegmental Vitiligo: Correlation with Disease Activity Tue, 15 Dec 2015 12:54:12 +0000 Background. Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary skin disorder resulting from autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), specifically CD4+CD25+ and Forkhead box P3+ (FoxP3+) Tregs, acquired notable attention because of their role in a variety of autoimmune pathologies. Dysregulation of Tregs may be one of the factors that can break tolerance to melanocyte self-antigens and contribute to vitiligo pathogenesis. Methods. In order to sustain the role of Tregs in pathogenesis and disease activity of vitiligo, surface markers for CD4+CD25+ and FoxP3+ peripheral Tregs were evaluated by flow cytometry in 80 Egyptian patients with nonsegmental vitiligo in addition to 60 healthy control subjects and correlated with clinical findings. Results. Vitiligo patients had significantly decreased numbers of both peripheral CD4+CD25+ and FoxP3+ T cells compared to control subjects (11.49%  ± 8.58% of CD4+ T cells versus 21.20%  ± 3.08%, and 1.09%  ± 0.96% versus 1.44%  ± 0.24%, resp., for both). Peripheral numbers of CD4+CD25+ and FoxP3+ Tregs correlated negatively with VIDA score. Conclusion. Treg depletion with impaired immune downregulatory function might play a key role in the autoimmune conditions beyond nonsegmental vitiligo particularly in active cases. Effective Treg cell-based immunotherapies might be a future hope for patients with progressive vitiligo. Doaa Salah Hegab and Mohamed Attia Saad Attia Copyright © 2015 Doaa Salah Hegab and Mohamed Attia Saad Attia. All rights reserved. Clinical Features and Drug Characteristics of Patients with Generalized Fixed Drug Eruption in the West of Iran (2005–2014) Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:36:42 +0000 Background. Generalized fixed drug eruption is a specific variant of fixed drug eruption with multifocal lesions. Diagnosis of this drug reaction is straightforward, but occasionally recognition of the causative drug is not possible. This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical features and culprit drugs in generalized fixed drug eruptions in the west of Iran. Method. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 patients with criteria of generalized fixed drug eruption over 9 years. Demographic, clinical, and drug intake information were collected. Results. Out of 30 patients (17 females and 13 males) with the mean age of years, 28 (93.3%) and 2 (6.7%) cases had plaque and bullous clinical presentation, respectively. Upper limbs were the most common (90%) site of involvement. The antibiotic group, especially cotrimoxazole (26.1%), was reported to be the most common offending drug, but the causative drug was not determined in 7 (23.3%) patients. Conclusion. Many cases of generalized fixed drug eruption firstly presented as limited lesions and led to generalized lesion due to repeated intake of the causative drug. No causative drug was found in some patients, which might be associated with concurrent intake of several drugs, multiple FDE, and peculiarity of the patch test. Hossein Kavoussi, Mansour Rezaei, Katayoun Derakhshandeh, Alireza Moradi, Ali Ebrahimi, Harif Rashidian, and Reza Kavoussi Copyright © 2015 Hossein Kavoussi et al. All rights reserved. Five-Year Retrospective Review of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Thu, 10 Dec 2015 13:07:35 +0000 Background. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute pustular eruption characterized by widespread nonfollicular sterile pustules. The aim of this study is to characterize the etiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, management, and outcome of patients with AGEP in Asians. Patient/Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on patient who presented with AGEP between August 2008 and November 2012 in a tertiary center in Thailand. Results. Nineteen patients with AGEP were included. AGEP was generally distributed in seventeen patients (89.5%) and localized in two (10.5%). Fever and neutrophilia occurred in 52.6% and 68.4%, respectively. Hepatitis was found up to 26.3%. The most common etiology was drugs (94.7%), comprising of antibiotics (73.6%), proton pump inhibitors (10.5%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (5.3%), and herbal medicine (5.3%). Beta-lactams were the most common causal drug, particularly carbapenems and cephalosporins. This is the first report of Andrographis paniculata as an offending agent for AGEP. We found no differences between various treatment regimens (topical corticosteroid, systemic corticosteroid, and supportive treatment) regarding the time from drug cessation to pustules resolution (). Conclusions. We have highlighted the presentation of AGEP among Asians. We found high association with systemic drugs. Carbapenems were one of the leading culprit drugs. Finally, a localized variant was observed. Chitprapassorn Thienvibul, Vasanop Vachiramon, and Kumutnart Chanprapaph Copyright © 2015 Chitprapassorn Thienvibul et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Striae Distensae: A Case-Referent Study Mon, 09 Nov 2015 09:33:41 +0000 Vitamin D (VD) plays a role in the skin regulation. Striae Distensae (SD) are manifestations of epidermal atrophy that occurs after tissue tearing due to overstretching or rapid growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between serum VD and occurrence of SD in women who had undergone mammaplasty with silicone implants. A case-referent study was conducted. The blood values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured before the surgery. For each patient postoperatively diagnosed with SD, four other participants submitted to the same surgery, without the development of SD, were enrolled as the healthy controls. 67 women with SD after the surgery entered the study. 268 formed the control group. In the serum of healthy controls 25OHD mean was 27 ng/mL, and SD cases presented 20 ng/mL (). Scarce values of VD have been observed in 56.71% of the cases presenting SD and in 39.91% without SD (). Chance of having VD values lower than 20 ng/mL amongst cases with SD is 2.38 (). Lower serum levels of VD are linked to a higher occurrence of SD. Rafaela Koehler Zanella, Denis Souto Valente, Leo Francisco Doncatto, Daniele Dos Santos Rossi, Aline Grimaldi Lerias, and Alexandre Vontobel Padoin Copyright © 2015 Rafaela Koehler Zanella et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Paraclinic Aspect of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis in Black Africans Sun, 08 Nov 2015 06:42:46 +0000 The specific objectives were to identify the epidemiology of cutaneous sarcoidosis and describe the clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. Materials and Methods. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 24 referred cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis in 25 years (1990–2014) collected at Venereology Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) both in consultation and in hospitalization. Results. The hospital frequency was one case per year. The average age was 42 years, ranging from 9 to 64. The sex ratio was 1. The shortest time interval between the appearance of the skin lesion and consultation of Dermatology Department at CHU Treichville was 3 months. The elementary lesions were represented primarily by a papule (18 cases), placard (3 cases), and nodule (2 cases) and mainly sat on the face and neck in 8 cases (38%). Extra cutaneous lesions were dominated by ganglion and respiratory involvement with 5 cases each followed by musculoskeletal damage in 3 cases. Chest radiography showed abnormality in 13 cases (54%). The pulmonary function test performed in 13 patients found 7 cases (54%) having restrictive ventilatory syndrome and 6 cases (46%) being normal. A tuberculin anergy was found in 11 cases (61%). Mamadou Kaloga, Ildevert Patrice Gbéry, Vagamon Bamba, Yao Isidore Kouassi, Elidjé Joseph Ecra, Almamy Diabate, Sarah Kourouma, Kouadio Celestin Ahogo, Kouassi Alexandre Kouamé, Komenan Kassi, Kanga Kouame, and Abdoulaye Sangaré Copyright © 2015 Mamadou Kaloga et al. All rights reserved. Is There Really Relationship between Androgenetic Alopecia and Metabolic Syndrome? Wed, 04 Nov 2015 12:08:52 +0000 Background. There are several studies investigating the relationship between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) with conflicting results. Objective. We sought to investigate whether there is a relationship between AGA and MS. Methods. A case-control study including 74 male patients with AGA and 42 male controls was conducted. Age, duration of AGA, AGA onset age, anthropometric measures, body mass index, lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, and presence of MS were recorded. Results. Of the 74 male AGA patients (age range 20–50 years, mean 32.14), 24 were in stage 2, 26 were in stage 3, 17 were in stage 3V, 1 was in stage 5, and 6 were in stage 7. There was no significant difference in the rate of MS between AGA and control groups . Among the evaluated parameters, only systolic blood pressure in AGA group was significantly higher than control group. Conclusion. In contrast to the most of the previous studies, our study does not support the link between AGA and MS. To exclude confounding factors such as advanced age and therefore metabolic disturbances, further studies are needed with large group of AGA patients including different age groups and varying severity. Seyran Ozbas Gok, Asli Akin Belli, and Emine Dervis Copyright © 2015 Seyran Ozbas Gok et al. All rights reserved.