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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2011, Article ID 198591, 8 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Temperament and Character on Symptoms of Depression in a Chinese Nonclinical Population

1Research Center of Applied Psychology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu 610083, China
2Department of Applied Psychology, Chengdu Medical College, 601 Rongdu Road, Jinniu District, Chengdu 610083, China
3Department of Clinical Behavioural Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan
4Kitamura Institute of Mental Health Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Received 30 April 2011; Revised 1 July 2011; Accepted 31 July 2011

Academic Editor: C. Robert Cloninger

Copyright © 2011 Zi Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To examine the relations between personality traits and syndromes of depression in a nonclinical Chinese population. Method. We recruited 469 nonclinical participants in China. They completed the Chinese version temperament and character inventory (TCI) and self-rating depression scale (SDS). A structural equation model was used to rate the relation between seven TCI scales and the three SDS subscale scores (based on Shafer's meta-analysis of the SDS items factor analyses). This was based on the assumption that the three depression subscales would be predicted by the temperament and character subscales, whereas the character subscales would be predicted by the temperament subscales. Results. The positive symptoms scores were predicted by low self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P) as well as older age. The negative symptoms scores were predicted only by an older age. The somatic symptoms scores were predicted by high SD. Conclusion. Syndromes of depression are differentially associated with temperament and character patterns. It was mainly the positive symptoms scores that were predicted by the TCI scores. The effects of harm avoidance (HA) on the positive symptoms scores could be mediated by low SD and C.