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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 352048, 19 pages
Clinical Study

Depressive and Aggressive Responses to Frustration: Development of a Questionnaire and Its Validation in a Sample of Male Alcoholics

1Department of Psychology, University of Giessen, Otto-Behaghel-Strasse 10, 35394 Giessen, Germany
2Vitos Giessen-Marburg Gemeinnützige GmbH, Licher Strasse 106, 35394 Giessen, Germany
3Clinic of Psychiatry, University of Giessen, Am Steg 22, 35392 Giessen, Germany

Received 30 October 2010; Revised 27 December 2010; Accepted 10 January 2011

Academic Editor: Alessandro Serretti

Copyright © 2011 M. Y. Baars et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions.