Depression Research and Treatment / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

Table 1

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of pediatric major depressive disorder.

StudySampleField strengthVoxel size & locationFindings

Caetano, et al. 2005 [83]-14 MDD (mean age 13.6)-22 Healthy Controls (mean age 13.3)1.5 Tesla8cc in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine (GPC + PC; or choline-containing compounds) in MDD patients. Inositol and myo-Inositol levels in MDD patientsIn MDD patients Glutamate level is inversely correlated with Duration of Illness as well as Number of Episodes
Farchione et al. 2002 [76]-11 treatment-naive MDD patients (mean age 14.3)-11 healthy controls (mean age 14.3)1.5 Tesla0.8 cc in the Left and Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Cho was observed in left (but not right) DLPFC in MDD patients versus healthy controls (32.5% higher)No difference in NAA or Cr were observed between case-control pairs
Gabbay et al. 2009 [89]-7 MDD patients (mean age 16.2) with Melancholic Features-7 patients (mean age 16.9) with non-melancholic, reactive MDD-6 healthy comparison patients (mean age 16.2)3 Tesla10 cm anterior–posterior (AP) × 7 cm left–right (LR) × 6 cm inferior–superior (IS) = 420 cm3 in the Left Putamen and Right CaudateNo significant correlations were found in the healthy control group or in the MDD group as a wholeIn Melancholic patients, plasma Kynurenine concentrations were positively correlated with Right Caudate total CholineIn Melancholic patients, plasma 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), a neurotoxic intermediate of the Kynurenine Pathway) was positively correlated with Left Putamen total Choline
Gabbay et al. 2007 [86]-14 adolescents(mean age 16.2 years) who had symptoms of MDD for 8 weeks and a score ≥40 (mean=63.6) on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised-10 healthy comparison patients3 Tesla16 (anterior-posterior) × 16 (left-right) voxels, each anominal 0.75 cm3 in the left and right caudate, putamen and thalamusAdolescents with MDD had significantly concentrations of choline (2.11 mM versus 1.56 mM) and creatine (6.65 mM versus 5.26 mM) in the left caudate.No other neurochemical differences were observed between groups.
Kusumakar, et al. 2001 [75]-11 MDD (mean age 16.7)-11 Healthy Controls (mean age 16.6)1.5 TeslaMultivoxel: 6x6 placed in anterior medial temporal region (amygdala) Left amygdala Cho-Cr ratios in MDD patients compared with controlsLeft amygdala NAA-Cr and right amygdala Cho-Cr and NAA-Cr did not differ significantly between patients with depression and control patients.
MacMaster et al. 2008 [87]11 MDD, 11 Healthy Controls1.5Tesla0.8 mL voxel in the left and right Medial Temporal Cortex N-acetyl-aspartate in theleft medial temporal cortex (27%) in MDD patients versus healthy controls
MacMaster and Kusumakar, 2006 [84]-12 MDD-11 Healthy Controls (10-18 y/o; 7 females and 5 males per group)1.5 Tesla4cc in the right prefrontal cortexRight prefrontal cortex Choline/Creatine ratio in MDD compared with healthy controls ( )
Mirza et al. 2004 [80]-13 psychotropic-naïve with MDD (mean age 15.5)-13 healthy controls (mean age 15.4)1.5 Tesla2 × 1.5 × 1 cm = 3 cc volume centered on the anterior cingulate cortexAnterior cingulate glutamatergic (Glx) concentrations were significantly (19% decrease) in MDD patients versus controls (9.27 +/- 0.43 versus 11.47 +/- 0.26, respectively, )
Mirza et al. 2006 [85]18 pediatricpatients with major depressive disorder 9 to 17 years of age, 18 case-matched healthy controls, and 27 patients withobsessive-compulsive disorder 7 to 16 years old1.5 Tesla0.8 mL voxel in the medial thalamus left and right medial thalamiccreatine-phosphocreatine concentrations in patients with OCD compared with both healthy controls and patients with MDDCreatine-phosphocreatine concentrations did not differ significantly betweenpatients with MDD and healthy controls
Rosenberg et al. 2005 [82]14 MDD patients (man age 15.6)14 healthy controls (mean age 15.5)1.5 Tesla2 × 1.5 × 1 cm = 3cc centered on the Anterior Cingulate Cortex anterior cingulate glutamate in MDD patients compared with controls ( ; 23% decrease) No difference in anterior cingulate glutamine
Rosenberg, et al. 2004 [81]-14 psychotropic-naïve patients with MDDwithout OCD (mean age 15.6)-20 non-depressed, patients with OCD (mean age 11.4)-14 healthy controls (mean age 15.5)1.5 Tesla2 × 1.5 × 1 cm = 3mL in the Anterior Cingulate CortexAnterior cingulate glutamatergic (Glx) concentrations were significantly in OCD patients (15.1% decrease) and MDD patients (18.7% decrease) compared with controls ( )
Smith et al. 2003 [77]-18 drug naive outpatients with MDD without OCD (mean age 14.4)-27 drug-naive patients with OCD (mean age 10.3)-18 healthy controls (mean age 14.4)1.5 Tesla0.8 mL voxel in the left and right medial and lateral thalamus left and right medial thalamic Choline concentrations in OCD patients compared with both healthy controls and patients with MDD
Steingard, et al. 2000 [74]-17 MDD patients (mean age 15.8)-28 healthy controls (mean age 14.5)1.5 Tesla15 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm (3.38cm3) voxel in the Left Orbitofrontal Cortex Choline/Creatine ratio in MDD compared with controls Choline/NAA ratio in MDD compared with controls

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