-14 MDD (mean age 13.6)-22 Healthy Controls (mean age 13.3)
8cc in the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
⇓ glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine (GPC + PC; or choline-containing compounds) in MDD patients. ⇑ Inositol and myo-Inositol levels in MDD patientsIn MDD patients Glutamate level is inversely correlated with Duration of Illness as well as Number of Episodes
-7 MDD patients (mean age 16.2) with Melancholic Features-7 patients (mean age 16.9) with non-melancholic, reactive MDD-6 healthy comparison patients (mean age 16.2)
10 cm anterior–posterior (AP) × 7 cm left–right (LR) × 6 cm inferior–superior (IS) = 420 cm3 in the Left Putamen and Right Caudate
No significant correlations were found in the healthy control group or in the MDD group as a wholeIn Melancholic patients, plasma Kynurenine concentrations were positively correlated with Right Caudate total CholineIn Melancholic patients, plasma 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), a neurotoxic intermediate of the Kynurenine Pathway) was positively correlated with Left Putamen total Choline
-14 adolescents(mean age 16.2 years) who had symptoms of MDD for 8 weeks and a score ≥40 (mean=63.6) on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised-10 healthy comparison patients
16 (anterior-posterior) × 16 (left-right) voxels, each anominal 0.75 cm3 in the left and right caudate, putamen and thalamus
Adolescents with MDD had significantly ⇑ concentrations of choline (2.11 mM versus 1.56 mM) and creatine (6.65 mM versus 5.26 mM) in the left caudate.No other neurochemical differences were observed between groups.
-11 MDD (mean age 16.7)-11 Healthy Controls (mean age 16.6)
Multivoxel: 6x6 placed in anterior medial temporal region (amygdala)
⇓ Left amygdala Cho-Cr ratios in MDD patients compared with controlsLeft amygdala NAA-Cr and right amygdala Cho-Cr and NAA-Cr did not differ significantly between patients with depression and control patients.
18 pediatricpatients with major depressive disorder 9 to 17 years of age, 18 case-matched healthy controls, and 27 patients withobsessive-compulsive disorder 7 to 16 years old
0.8 mL voxel in the medial thalamus
⇑ left and right medial thalamiccreatine-phosphocreatine concentrations in patients with OCD compared with both healthy controls and patients with MDDCreatine-phosphocreatine concentrations did not differ significantly betweenpatients with MDD and healthy controls
-17 MDD patients (mean age 15.8)-28 healthy controls (mean age 14.5)
15 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm (3.38cm3) voxel in the Left Orbitofrontal Cortex
⇑ Choline/Creatine ratio in MDD compared with controls⇑ Choline/NAA ratio in MDD compared with controls
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