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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 749640, 8 pages
Research Article

An Increase of the Character Function of Self-Directedness Is Centrally Involved in Symptom Reduction during Remission from Major Depression

1Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
2Psycho-Medical Centre, Parnassia, Monsterseweg 93, 2553 RJ The Hague, The Netherlands
3Programma Depressie-Ambulant, Parnassia, PsyQ, Lijnbaan 4, 2512 VA The Hague, The Netherlands

Received 10 April 2011; Accepted 3 October 2011

Academic Editor: C. Robert Cloninger

Copyright © 2011 Jaap G. Goekoop et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Studies with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in depressive disorders have shown changes (Δ) of the character of Self-Directedness (SD) and the temperament of Harm Avoidance (HA). The central question of this study is which of these two changes is most proximally related to the production of depressive symptoms. Methods. The start and endpoint data from a two-year followup of 58 depressed patients were reanalyzed. We used the ΔHA and ΔSD scores as well as the Δ scores on three dimensions of psychopathology, called Emotional Dysregulation (ED), Retardation (RET), and Anxiety (ANX). The presence of the main relation between personality and psychopathology was tested in all patients and in four subcategories. The data were analyzed by MANCOVA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results. ΔHA and ΔSD correlated negatively, and only ΔSD was related (negatively) to ΔED. This pattern was found in all subcategories. SEM showed ΔHA and ΔSD had an ambiguous causal interrelationship, while ΔSD, ΔRET, and ΔANX had unidirectional effects on ΔED. Conclusion. The results correspond with a central pathogenetic role for a state-related deficit at the character level in depression. This may have important consequences for investigations of endophenotypes and clinical treatment.