Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 257172, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/257172
Clinical Study

Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1Foundation for Epigenetic Medicine, 3340 Fulton Road, No. 442, Fulton, CA 95439, USA
2College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
3Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Received 27 February 2012; Revised 20 May 2012; Accepted 21 May 2012

Academic Editor: H. Grunze

Copyright © 2012 Dawson Church et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National Institutes of Health, “Depression,” Tech. Rep. 08 3561, National Institutes of Health, Washington, DC, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  2. D. R. Rubinow, P. J. Schmidt, and C. A. Roca, “Estrogen-serotonin interactions: implications for affective regulation,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 839–850, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. R. R. Krishnan, W. D. Taylor, D. R. McQuoid et al., “Clinical characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging-defined subcortical ischemic depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 390–397, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. Mondimore, Adolescent Depression, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2002.
  5. G. Brattberg, “Self-administered EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in individuals with fibromyalgia: a randomized trial,” Integrative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 30–35, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. Church, C. Hawk, A. Brooks et al., “Psychological trauma in veterans using EFT, (emotional freedom techniques): a randomized controlled trial,” in Armed Forces Public Health Conference, Hampton Roads, VA, USA, March 2011.
  7. D. Church, O. Piña, C. Reategui, and A. Brooks, “Single session reduction of the intensity of traumatic memories in abused adolescents: a randomized controlled trial,” Traumatology. In press.
  8. T. Karatzias, K. Power, K. Brown et al., “A controlled comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of two psychological therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing vs. emotional freedom techniques,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 199, no. 6, pp. 372–378, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Church and A. J. Brooks, “The effect of a brief EFT, (Emotional Freedom Techniques) self-intervention on anxiety, depression, pain and cravings in healthcare workers,” Integrative Medicine A, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 40–44, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Church, L. Geronilla, and I. Dinter, “Psychological symptom change in veterans after six sessions of EFT, (Emotional Freedom Techniques): an observational study,” International Journal of Healing and Caring, vol. 9, no. 1, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Church, “The treatment of combat trauma in veterans using EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques): a pilot protocol,” Traumatology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Rowe, “The effects of EFT on long-term psychological symptoms,” Counseling and Clinical Psychology Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, article 104, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Palmer-Hoffman and A. Brooks, “Psychological symptom change after group application of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT),” Energy Psychology, vol. 3, no. 1, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. N. Sezgin and B. Özcan, “The effect of progressive muscular relaxation and Emotional Freedom Techniques on test anxiety in high school students: a randomized controlled trial,” Energy Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. J. Benor, K. Ledger, L. Toussaint, G. Hett, and D. Zaccaro, “Pilot study of Emotional Freedom Techniques, wholistic hybrid derived from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Technique, and cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of test anxiety in university students,” Explore, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 338–340, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence, Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  17. J. Wolpe, The Practice of Therapy, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd ed edition, 1973.
  18. R. Callahan, Tapping the Healer Within: Using Thought Field Therapy to Instantly Conquer Your Fears, Anxieties, and Emotional Distress, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  19. G. Craig, The EFT Manual, Energy, Psychology Press, Santa Rosa, Calif, USA, 2008.
  20. P. Mollon, “Thought field therapy and its derivatives: rapid relief of mental health problems through tapping on the body,” Primary Care and Community Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 123–127, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. Mollon, Psychoanalytic Energy Psychotherapy, Karnac, London, UK, 2008.
  22. G. A. Flint, W. Lammers, and D. G. Mitnick, “Emotional Freedom Techniques: a safe treatment intervention for many trauma based issues,” in Trauma Treatment Techniques: Innovative Trends, J. Garrick and M. B. Williams, Eds., p. 125, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. Schulz, “Integrating energy psychology into treatment for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse,” Energy Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. Feinstein, “Controversies in energy psychology,” Energy Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. Feinstein, “Energy psychology in disaster relief,” Traumatology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 124–137, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Salcýoglu and M. Basoglu, “Control-focused behavioral treatment of earthquake survivors using live exposure to conditioned and simulated unconditioned stimuli,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, vol. 13, no. 1, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Feinstein, “Rapid treatment of ptsd: why psychological exposure with acupoint tapping may be effective,” Psychotherapy, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 385–402, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Feinstein and D. Church, “Modulating gene expression through psychotherapy: the contribution of non-invasive somatic interventions,” Review of General Psychology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 283–295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. H. Baker, P. Carrington, and D. Putilin, “Theoretical and methodological problems in research on Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) and other meridian based therapies,” Psychology Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 34–46, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. W. Waite and M. D. Holder, “Assessment of the emotional freedom technique: an alternative treatment for fear,” The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  31. K. K. S. Hui, J. Liu, N. Makris et al., “Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: evidence from fMRI studies in normal subjects,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 9, pp. 13–25, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  32. V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu et al., “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 254–266, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. P. Dhond, N. Kettner, and V. Napadow, “Neuroimaging acupuncture effects in the human brain,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 603–616, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. K. S. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina et al., “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” NeuroImage, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 479–496, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Fang, Z. Jin, Y. Wang et al., “The salient characteristics of the central effects of acupuncture needling: limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network modulation,” Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1196–1206, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. C. Cherkin, K. J. Sherman, A. L. Avins et al., “A randomized trial comparing acupuncture, simulated acupuncture, and usual care for chronic low back pain,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 9, pp. 858–866, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Church, G. Yount, and A. B. Brooks, “The effect of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) on stress biochemistry: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. In press.
  38. J. H. Diepold and D. M. Goldstein, “Thought field therapy and QEEG changes in the treatment of trauma: a case study,” Traumatology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. T. Lambrou, G. J. Pratt, and G. Chevalier, “Physiological and psychological effects of a mind/body therapy on claustrophobia,” Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, vol. 14, pp. 239–251, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  40. D. Feinstein, D. Eden, and G. Craig, The Promise of Energy Psychology, Tarcher, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  41. P. G. Swingle, L. Pulos, and M. K. Swingle, “Neurophysiological indicators of EFT treatment of posttraumatic stress,” Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 75–86, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Lane, “The neurochemistry of counterconditioning: acupressure desensitization in psychotherapy,” Energy Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 31–44, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  43. A. T. Beck, C. H. Ward, M. Mendelson, J. Mock, and J. Erbaugh, “An inventory for measuring depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 4, pp. 561–571, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Startup, A. Rees, and M. Barkham, “Components of major depression examined via the Beck depression inventory,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 251–259, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Marton, M. Churchard, S. Kutcher, and M. Korenblum, “Diagnostic utility of the Beck depression inventory with adolescent psychiatric outpatients and inpatients,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 428–431, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Barrera and C. V. Garrison-Jones, “Properties of the Beck depression inventory as a screening instrument for adolescent depression,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 263–273, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Kovacs, T. L. Feinberg, and M. Crouse-Novak, “Depressive disorders in childhood. II. A longitudinal study of the risk for a subsequent major depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 643–649, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Harrington, H. Fudge, M. Rutter, A. Pickles, and J. Hill, “Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression. I. Psychiatric status,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 465–473, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. B. Kandel and M. Davies, “Adult sequelae of adolescent depressive symptoms,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 255–262, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. N. D. Ryan, J. Puig-Antich, P. Ambrosini et al., “The clinical picture of major depression in children and adolescents,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 854–861, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Berto, D. D. D'Ilario, P. Ruffo, R. Di Virgilio, and F. Rizzo, “Depression: cost-of-illness studies in the international literature, a review,” The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  52. P. S. Wang, G. E. Simon, J. Avorn et al., “Telephone screening, outreach, and care management for depressed workers and impact on clinical and work productivity outcomes: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 12, pp. 1401–1411, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. A. van der Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, and L. Weisaeth, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  54. D. Feinstein, “Energy psychology: a review of the preliminary evidence,” Psychotherapy, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 199–213, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. O'Brien, R. Fahmy, and S. P. Singh, “Disengagement from mental health services: a literature review,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 558–568, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus