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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 469384, 10 pages
Research Article

Effect of Affective Temperaments Assessed by the TEMPS-A on the Relationship between Work-Related Stressors and Depressive Symptoms among Workers in Their Twenties to Forties in Japan

1Department of Nursing, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8530, Japan
2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kanto Medical Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 5-9-22 Higashi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8625, Japan
3Department of Literature, Atomi University, 1-9-6 Nakano, Niiza-shi, Saitama 352-8501, Japan

Received 17 May 2012; Accepted 2 August 2012

Academic Editor: Jörg Richter

Copyright © 2012 Maki Tei-Tominaga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Relatively recently in Japan, immature-type depression, frequently classified in the bipolar II spectrum, has increased among workers in their twenties to forties. This study explored whether affective temperaments moderate the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms among this age group. In July 2004, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all employees of a Japanese company. Eight hundred seventy-four employees (63%) returned the questionnaires, with 728 completed. Questionnaires included the 12-item General Health Questionnaire for assessing depressive symptoms, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version for assessing affective temperaments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to assess work-related stressors and overcommitment, and questions regarding individual attributes and employment characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that affective temperaments moderated the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms. Effort ( O R = 1 . 0 7 8 ), which represents job demands and/or obligations imposed on employees, and the upper tertile of overcommitment ( O R = 1 . 5 8 9 ), which represents hyperadaptation to the workplace, were risk factors for depressive symptoms. Additionally, the results for cyclothymic ( O R = 1 1 . 4 0 4 ) and anxious temperaments ( O R = 1 . 5 8 9 ) suggested that depressive symptoms among this age group may be related to immature-type depression.