Depression Research and Treatment / 2012 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

Table 1

Temperament and character description (reproduced with permission of C. R. Cloninger).

Temperament and character descriptors

TemperamentHigh scoresLow scores
Harm avoidanceWorrying and pessimistic;Relaxed and optimistic;
fearful and doubtful;bold and confident;
shy;outgoing;
fatigable.vigorous.
Novelty seekingExploratory and curious;Indifferent;
impulsive;reflective;
extravagant and enthusiastic;frugal and detached;
disorderly.orderly and regimented.
Reward dependanceSentimental and warm;Practical and cold;
dedicated and attached;withdraw and detached;
dependent.independent.
PersistenceIndustrious and diligent;Inactive and indolent;
hard working;gives up easily;
ambitious and overachiever;modest and underachiever;
perseverant and perfectionist.quitting and pragmatist.
Character
Self-directednessMature and strong;Immature and fragile;
responsible and reliable;blaming and unreliable;
purposeful;purposeless;
resourceful and effective;inert and ineffective;
self-accepted;self-striving;
habits congruent with long-term goals.habits incongruent with long-term goals.
CooperativenessSocially tolerant;Socially intolerant;
empathic;critical;
helpful;unhelpful;
compassionate and constructive;revengeful and destructive;
ethical and principled.opportunistic.
Self-transcendenceWise and patient;Impatient;
creative and self-forgetful;unimaginative and self-conscious;
united with the universe.pride and lack of humility.