Depression Research and Treatment / 2012 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

Table 3

Mean (±SD) scores for temperament, character, and locus of control among affective profiles.

Self-fulfillingHigh affectiveLow affectiveSelf-destructive
(high PA and low NA)(high PA and high NA)(low PA and low NA)(low PA and high NA)

Novelty seeking56.06 ± 1.4556.34 ± 1.5855.37 ± 1.5154.31 ± 1.53
Harm avoidance33.22 ± 1.7942.92 ± 1.3545.19 ± 1.8054.97 ± 1.93
Reward dependence53.31 ± 1.4856.58 ± 1.6152.17 ± 1.5557.06 ± 1.72
Persistence59.38 ± 2.52*53.31 ± 2.7243.50 ± 2.4744.11 ± 2.41
Self-directedness65.62 ± 1.45*58.02 ± 1.2760.43 ± 1.7348.30 ± 1.57
Cooperativeness69.37 ± 1.39*67.13 ± 1.5465.95 ± 1.5963.05 ± 1.68
Self-transcendence39.42 ± 1.8748.61 ± 1.7834.77 ± 1.6141.76 ± 1.73
External locus of control7.11 ± 2.159.21 ± 2.337.25 ± 2.5614.49 ± 2.32
Internal locus of control12.71 ± 2.3712.65 ± 2.8812.41 ± 2.5912.02 ± 2.46

, *higher than the other three groups, higher than self-fulfilling, higher than low affective.