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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 970194, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/970194
Review Article

Mental Health Services Required after Disasters: Learning from the Lasting Effects of Disasters

1Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia
2Mental Health Strategy, Welsh Institute for Health and Social Care, University of Glamorgan and Ty Bryn, St Cadoc’s Hospital, Aneurin Bevan Health Board, NHS Wales, Lodge Road, Caerleon, Gwent NP 18 3XQ, UK

Received 19 December 2011; Accepted 30 April 2012

Academic Editor: Rachel Yehuda

Copyright © 2012 A. C. McFarlane and Richard Williams. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Disasters test civil administrations’ and health services’ capacity to act in a flexible but well-coordinated manner because each disaster is unique and poses unusual challenges. The health services required differ markedly according to the nature of the disaster and the geographical spread of those affected. Epidemiology has shown that services need to be equipped to deal with major depressive disorder and grief, not just posttraumatic stress disorder, and not only for victims of the disaster itself but also the emergency service workers. The challenge is for specialist advisers to respect and understand the existing health care and support networks of those affected while also recognizing their limitations. In the initial aftermath of these events, a great deal of effort goes into the development of early support systems but the longer term needs of these populations are often underestimated. These services need to be structured, taking into account the pre-existing psychiatric morbidity within the community. Disasters are an opportunity for improving services for patients with posttraumatic psychopathology in general but can later be utilized for improving services for victims of more common traumas in modern society, such as accidents and interpersonal violence.