Table 3: Performance on cognitive outcome measures before and after duloxetine treatment.

TaskOutcome measurePretreatmentPosttreatmentES
Mean (SD) -score
mean
-score
(SD)
Mean (SD) -score
mean
-score
(SD)

BLCMean correct latency726.1 (135.2)0.071.12684.7 (123.3) 0.38 1.06
Mean percent correcta99.9 (0.6)−0.191.51100.0 (0.0)0.160

RTIFive-choice movement time480.7 (108.3)432.4 (91.5)0.48
Five-choice reaction time 415.6 (121.4)378.1 (52.3)

DMSPercent correct (all delays) 83.2 (9.8)94.3 (6.4)1.37
Percent correct (simultaneous)a98.1 (6.0)97.1 (7.2)
Mean correct latency (all delays) 3656.2 (1058.4)2958.8 (727.0)0.78
Mean correct latency (simultaneous) 2926.9 (941.3)2672.4 (573.3)

PALMean trials to success 1.6 (0.5)1.6 (0.7)
Total errors (adjusted) 10.4 (10.0)6.9 (8.0)
Total trials (adjusted) 8.0 (2.4)7.8 (2.8)

PRMPercent correct 90.3 (13.3)91.07 (11.9)
Mean correct latency 1942.4 (514.8)1730.4 (359.8)0.48

IEDStages completeda8.1 (1.9)8.7 (0.6)
Pre-ED errors 9.6 (9.2)7.5 (3.1)
EDS errors 6.4 (8.5)7.3 (8.5)

SWMStrategy 34.8 (5.3)−0.760.9333.4 (5.5)−0.520.95
Between errors 4 boxes 1.3 (2.4)−0.431.450.8 (1.2)−0.421.49
Between errors 6 boxes6.9 (7.9)−0.461.174.9 (5.2)−0.090.82
Between errors 8 boxes21.6 (13.5)−0.481.0417.2 (11.8)−0.481.04

SOCProblems solved in minimum moves 8.5 (2.1)9.2 (2.0)
Mean initial thinking time 2 moves 2445.6 (1732.3)−0.281.462979.0 (2981.9)−0.331.88
Mean initial thinking time 3 moves6241.2 (4245.1)−0.031.145181.1 (2600.0)0.280.56
Mean initial thinking time 4 moves6906.5 (3849.4)0.460.758513.3 (6505.3)0.261.17
Mean initial thinking time 5 moves9283.5 (6218.4)0.450.759072.6 (5555.2)0.480.65
Mean subsequent thinking time 2 movesa444.1 (314.2)−0.240.34370.7 (225.2)−0.010.51
Mean subsequent thinking time 3 movesa4826.6 (6091.8)−6.997.02716.4 (817.0)−0.060.75
Mean subsequent thinking time 4 movesa3185.8 (3656.9)−0.741.631001.8 (866.8)0.380.41
Mean subsequent thinking time 5 movesa2932.8 (3270.5)−0.821.531209.4 (1668.0)−0.171.6

AGNMean correct latency 557.3 (65.6)543.0 (51.8)
Total omissions 22.0 (14.0)14.5 (9.1)0.65
Total commissionsb24.3 (15.4)19.5 (9.1)

VRMcImmediate free recall total correct6.2  (1.7)7.2 (2.0)0.54
Immediate free recall total novel wordsa,b,c0.3 (0.6)0.0 (0.0)
Immediate free recall total perseverationsa,c0.2 (0.9)0.1 (0.4)
Immediate recognition total correctb22.7 (2.3)23.7 (0.5)
Immediate recognition total false positivesa,c0.4 (1.1)0.1 (0.2)
Delayed recognition total correct22.3 (2.6)23.0 (1.5)
Delayed recognition total false positivesa,c0.7 (1.0)0.7 (1.1)

Measures of time and latency are reported in milliseconds. Note that parallel forms were used when available. Normed scores ( -scores) are calculated for clinical mode tests (BLC, SOC, and SWM) and are presented when available.
%: percent change from pretreatment to posttreatment (note percent differences that were significant at are bolded; values and significance values reported within the text); SD: standard deviation; EDS: extradimensional shift; ES: effect size (Cohen’s ); BLC: big circle/little circle; RTI: reaction time; DMS: delayed matching to sample; PAL: paired associates learning; PRM: pattern recognition memory; IED: intradimensional/extradimensional shift; SWM: spatial working memory; SOC: stockings of cambridge; AGN: affective go/no-go; VRM: verbal recognition memory.
aNot included in MANOVAs for their respective domains due to lack of variation in measures (BLC, DMS, IED, and VRM measures) or inability to obtain a measure for the item in the majority of cases (SOC mean subsequent thinking time measures). Note these SOC measures showed changes in the expected direction, indicating at least numerical improvement for those who had a nonzero value for the measure (i.e., their movement time was less than their thinking time).
bApproached significance ( ).
cNote that percent change was not calculated for the verbal recognition memory tasks of immediate free recall total novel words, immediate free recall total perseverations, immediate recognition total false positives, and delayed recognition total false positives due to the limited number of values other than 0.