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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2014, Article ID 735307, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/735307
Research Article

Stresses and Disability in Depression across Gender

1Department of Psychiatry, Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Narhe, Pune, Maharashtra 411041, India
2Maharashtra Institute of Mental Health, Pune 411001, India
3Psychiatry Unit, KEM Hospital, Pune 411011, India

Received 31 July 2013; Revised 12 October 2013; Accepted 27 October 2013; Published 21 January 2014

Academic Editor: Yvonne Forsell

Copyright © 2014 Sharmishtha S. Deshpande et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Depression, though generally episodic, results in lasting disability, distress, and burden. Rising prevalence of depression and suicide in the context of epidemiological transition demands more attention to social dimensions like gender related stresses, dysfunction, and their role in outcome of depression. Cross-sectional and follow-up assessment of men and women with depression at a psychiatric tertiary centre was undertaken to compare their illness characteristics including suicidal ideation, stresses, and functioning on GAF, SOFAS, and GARF scales (). We reassessed the patients on HDRS-17 after 6 weeks of treatment. Paired t-test and chi-square test of significance were used to compare the two groups, both before and after treatment. Interpersonal and marital stresses were reported more commonly by women () and financial stresses by men () though relational functioning was equally impaired in both. Women had suffered stresses for significantly longer duration (). Men had more impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to females (). History of suicide attempts was significantly associated with more severe depression and lower levels of functioning in case of females with untreated depression. Significant cross-gender differences in stresses, their duration, and types of dysfunction mandate focusing on these aspects over and above the criterion-based diagnosis.