Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2015, Article ID 650804, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/650804
Research Article

Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

1Sigmund-Freud-Institute, 60323 Frankfurt, Germany
2University of Kassel, Psychoanalytical Psychology, 34127 Kassel, Germany

Received 24 June 2015; Revised 25 October 2015; Accepted 29 October 2015

Academic Editor: Janusz K. Rybakowski

Copyright © 2015 Alexa Negele et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. World Health Organization, The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, 2008, http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf.
  2. H. U. Wittchen, F. Jacobi, J. Rehm et al., “The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 655–679, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. World Health Organization, Mental Health. A Call for Action by World Health Ministers. Ministerial Round Tables 2001, Geneva, Switzerland, WHO,http://www.who.int/mental_health/advocacy/en/Call_for_Action_MoH_Intro.pdf.
  4. J. R. Vittengl, L. A. Clark, T. W. Dunn, and R. B. Jarrett, “Reducing relapse and recurrence in unipolar depression: a comparative meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy's effects,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 475–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. J. Blatt and D. C. Zuroff, “Empirical evaluation of the assupmtion in identifying evidenc-based treatments for seriously disturbed young adults: a reply to Bein,” Psychotherapy Research, vol. 8, pp. 42–53, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. Hautzinger, Akute Depression, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2010.
  7. G. Schulte-Körne and A. K. Allgaier, “Genetik depressiver Störungen,” Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, vol. 36, pp. 27–43, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  8. H. Bleichmar, “Verschiedene Pfade, die in die Depression führen. Implikationen für spezifische und gezielte Interventionen,” in Chronische Depression. Verstehen Behandeln Erforschen, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Bahrke, and A. Negele, Eds., pp. 82–98, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, Germany, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. W. Bohleber, “Neue Ergebnisse der Depressionsforschung. Erklärungsansätze—Therapiemodelle-Behandlungstechnik,” Psyche—Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen, vol. 64, pp. 771–781, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. Hill, “Developmental perspectives on adult depression,” Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 200–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Caspi, K. Sugden, T. E. Moffitt et al., “Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5631, pp. 386–389, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Fischer and P. Riedesser, Lehrbuch der Psychotraumatologie, Ernst Reinhardt, Munich, Germany, 2009.
  13. W. Bohleber, Destructiveness, Intersubjectivity and Trauma: The Identity Crisis of Modern Psychoanalysis, Karnac Books, London, UK, 2010.
  14. A. Cooper, “Toward a limited definition of psychic trauma,” in The Reconstruction of Trauma, A. Rothstein, Ed., pp. 41–56, International Universities Press, Madison, Wis, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  15. H. Keilson, Sequentielle Traumatisierung bei Kindern, Enke, Stuttgart, Germany, 1979.
  16. J. L. Herman, “Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 377–391, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. A. van der Kolk, “Developmental trauma disorder,” Psychiatric Annals, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 401–408, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. M. R. Khan, “The concept of cumulative trauma,” in The Privacy of the Self, M. M. R. Khan, Ed., pp. 42–58, Hogarth, London, UK, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, “Changes in dreams—from a psychoanalysis with a traumatised, chronic depressed patient,” in The Significance of Dreams: Bridging Clinical and Extraclinical Research in Psychoanalysis, P. Fonagy, H. Kächele, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, and D. Taylor, Eds., pp. 49–85, Karnac Books, London, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, “Chronische Depression und Trauma. Konzeptuelle Überlegungen zu ersten klinischen Ergebnissen der LAC-Depressionsstudie,” in Chronische Depression. Verstehen—Behandeln—Erforschen, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Bahrke, and A. Negele, Eds., pp. 56–81, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, Germany, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, “Working with severely traumatized, chronically depressed analysands,” The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 611–636, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. L. C. Terr, “Childhood traumas: an outline and overview,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Moskvina, A. Farmer, V. Swainson et al., “Interrelationship of childhood trauma, neuroticism, and depressive phenotype,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 163–168, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Subic-Wrana, R. Tschan, M. Michal, R. Zwerenz, M. Beutel, and J. Wiltink, “Childhood trauma and its relation to diagnoses and psychic complaints in patients of an psychosomatic university ambulance,” Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 54–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. C. Kessler, “The effects of stressful life events on depression,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 48, pp. 191–214, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. E. Molnar, S. L. Buka, and R. C. Kessler, “Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: results from the national comorbidity survey,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 753–760, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. S. Widom, K. DuMont, and S. J. Czaja, “A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Tanskanen, J. Hintikka, K. Honkalampi, K. Haatainen, H. Koivumaa-Honkanen, and H. Viinamäki, “Impact of multiple traumatic experiences on the persistence of depressive symptoms—a population-based study,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 459–464, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Hill, R. Davis, M. Byatt, E. Burnside, L. Rollinson, and S. Fear, “Childhood sexual abuse and affective symptoms in women: a general population study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1283–1291, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. P. Chapman, C. L. Whitfield, V. J. Felitti, S. R. Dube, V. J. Edwards, and R. F. Anda, “Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 217–225, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Khan, H. C. McCormack, E. A. Bolger et al., “Childhood maltreatment, depression, and suicidal ideation: critical importance of parental and peer emotional abuse during developmental sensitive periods in males and females,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 42, pp. 1–28, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  32. B. E. Gibb, I. Chelminski, and M. Zimmerman, “Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult psychiatric outpatients,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 256–263, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Spinhoven, B. M. Elzinga, J. G. F. M. Hovens et al., “The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 126, no. 1-2, pp. 103–112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. M. Fergusson and P. E. Mullen, Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Evidence-Based Perspective, SAGE Publications, London, UK, 1999.
  35. E. C. Nelson, A. C. Heath, P. A. F. Madden et al., “Association between self-reported childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychosocial outcomes: results from a twin study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. R. Tyrka, M. C. Wyche, M. M. Kelly, L. H. Price, and L. L. Carpenter, “Childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorder symptoms: influence of maltreatment type,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. C. Fernando, T. Beblo, N. Schlosser et al., “The impact of self-reported childhood trauma on emotion regulation in borderline personality disorder and major depression,” Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 384–401, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Z. Bernet and M. B. Stein, “Relationship of childhood maltreatment to the onset and course of major depression in adulthood,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 169–174, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Etain, F. Mathieu, C. Henry et al., “Preferential association between childhood emotional abuse and bipolar disorder,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 376–383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. R. Dube, V. J. Felitti, M. Dong, W. H. Giles, and R. F. Anda, “The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 268–277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Bifulco, P. M. Moran, R. Baines, A. Bunn, and K. Stanford, “Exploring psychological abuse in childhood: II. Association with other abuse and adult clinical depression,” Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 241–258, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. E. Wiersma, J. G. F. M. Hovens, P. Van Oppen et al., “The importance of childhood trauma and childhood life events for chronicity of depression in adults,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 983–989, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. E. Norman, M. Byambaa, R. De, A. Butchart, J. Scott, and T. Vos, “The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 9, no. 11, Article ID e1001349, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. N. Klein, S. A. Shankman, and S. Rose, “Ten-year prospective follow-up study of the naturalistic course of dysthymic disorder and double depression,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 872–880, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. P. Klein, A. Roniger, U. Schweiger, C. Späth, and J. Brodbeck, “The association of childhood trauma and personality disorders with chronic depression: a cross-sectional study in depressed outpatients,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. e794–e801, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. L. P. Riso, R. K. Miyatake, and M. E. Thase, “The search for determinants of chronic depression: a review of six factors,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 103–115, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. N. Klein, B. A. Arnow, J. L. Barkin et al., “Early adversity in chronic depression: clinical correlates and response to pharmacotherapy,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 701–710, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV, APA, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  49. M. E. Beutel, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, B. Rüger et al., “Psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavior therapy of chronic depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial,” Trials, vol. 13, article 117, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Bahrke, M. Beutel et al., “Psychoanalytische und kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutische Langzeittherapien bei chronischer Depression: Die LAC-Depressionsstudie,” Psyche—Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen, vol. 64, pp. 782–832, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  51. U. Bahrke, M. Beutel, G. Fiedler et al., “Psychoanalytische und kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutische Langzeittherapien bei chronischer Depression (LAC),” in Chronische Depression. Verstehen—Behandeln—Erforschen, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Bahrke, and A. Negele, Eds., pp. 217–239, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, Germany, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  52. H. U. Wittchen, U. Wunderlich, S. Gruschwitz, and M. Zaudig, Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview (SKID), Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 1997.
  53. M. Hautzinger, F. Keller, and C. Kühner, Beck-Depressions-Inventar (BDI-II), Harcourt Test Service, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2006.
  54. A. J. Rush, M. H. Trivedi, H. M. Ibrahim et al., “The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). Clinical rating (QIDS-C) and self report (QIDS-SR). A psychometric evaluation in patients with chronic major depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 573–583, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. H. Franke, Revised Symptom Checklist of Derogatis (SCL-90-R), Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 2002.
  56. D. P. Bernstein, L. Fink, L. Handelsman et al., “Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 151, no. 8, pp. 1132–1136, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. P. Bernstein and L. Fink, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A Retrospective Self-Report-Manual, The Psychological Corporation Harcourt Brace and Company, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1998.
  58. D. P. Bernstein, J. A. Stein, M. D. Newcomb et al., “Development and validation of a brief screening version of the childhood trauma questionnaire,” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 169–190, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Klinitzke, M. Romppel, W. Häuser, E. Brähler, and H. Glaesmer, “Die deutsche Version des Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)-psychometrische Eigenschaften in einer bevölkerungsrepräsentativen Stichprobe,” Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Psychologische Medizin, vol. 62, pp. 47–51, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  60. K. Bader, C. Hänny, V. Schäfer, A. Neuckel, and C. Kuhl, “Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Psychometrische Eigenschaften einer deutschsprachigen Version,” Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, vol. 38, pp. 223–230, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  61. K. Wingenfeld, C. Spitzer, C. Mensebach et al., “Die deutsche Version der Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ): Erste Befunde zu den psychometrischen Kennwerten,” Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 442–450, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. E. A. Walker, J. Unutzer, C. Rutter et al., “Costs of health care use by women HMO members with a history of childhood abuse and neglect,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 609–613, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. D. Scher, D. R. Forde, J. R. McQuaid, and M. B. Stein, “Prevalence and demographic correlates of childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample,” Child Abuse and Neglect, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 167–180, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. Häuser, G. Schmutzer, E. Brähler, and H. Glaesmer, “Misshandlungen in Kindheit und Jugend. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage in einer repräsentativen Stichprobe der Deutschen Bevölkerung,” Deutsches Ärzteblatt, vol. 108, pp. 287–294, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  65. H. Lizardi, D. N. Klein, P. C. Ouimette, L. P. Riso, R. L. Anderson, and S. K. Donaldson, “Reports of the childhood home environment in early-onset dysthymia and episodic major depression,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 132–139, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. E. McGrath, G. P. Keita, B. R. Stickland, and N. F. Russo, Frauen und Depression: Risikofaktoren und Behandlungsfragen, Meckinger, Bergheim, Germany, 1993.
  67. A. Lampe, “Die Prävalenz von sexuellem Missbrauch, körperlicher Gewalt und emotionaler Vernachlässigung in der Kindheit in Europa,” Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, vol. 48, pp. 370–380, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  68. B. A. Arnow, C. M. Blasey, E. M. Hunkeler, J. Lee, and C. Hayward, “Does gender moderate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult depression?” Child Maltreatment, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 175–183, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Pimlott-Kubiak and L. M. Cortina, “Gender, victimization, and outcomes: reconceptualizing risk,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 528–539, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H. Z. Reinherz, A. D. Paradis, R. M. Giaconia, C. K. Stashwick, and G. Fitzmaurice, “Childhood and adolescent predictors of major depression in the transition to adulthood,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 12, pp. 2141–2147, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. M. H. Teicher, J. A. Samson, A. Polcari, and C. E. McGreenery, “Sticks, stones, and hurtful words: relative effects of various forms of childhood maltreatment,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 993–1000, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. F. Anda, A. Butchart, V. J. Felitti, and D. W. Brown, “Building a framework for global surveillance of the public health implications of adverse childhood experiences,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Andrews, J. Corry, T. Slade, G. Issakidis, and H. Swanton, “Child sexual abuse,” in Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributale to Selected Major Risk Factors, M. Ezzati, A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers, and C. J. L. Murray, Eds., pp. 1851–1940, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  74. J. G. F. M. Hovens, J. E. Wiersma, E. J. Giltay et al., “Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Wetzel, Gewalterfahrungen in der Kindheit. Sexueller Missbrauch, körperliche Misshandlung und deren langfristige Konsequenzen, Nomos, Baden-Baden, Germany, 1998.
  76. J. N. Briere and D. M. Elliott, “Immediate and long-term impacts of child sexual abuse,” The Future of Children, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 54–69, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. A. T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, International Universities Press, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  78. L. Y. Abramson, G. I. Metalsky, and L. B. Alloy, “Hopelessness depression. A theory-based subtype of depression,” Psychological Review, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 358–372, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Hautzinger, “Verhaltenstheoretische Ansätze bei chronischer Depression,” in Chronische Depression. Verstehen—Behandeln—Erforschen, M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Bahrke, and A. Negele, Eds., pp. 33–55, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, Germany, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  80. B. E. Gibb and L. B. Alloy, “A prospective test of the hopelessness theory of depression in children,” Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 264–274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. B. E. Gibb and J. R. Z. Abela, “Emotional abuse, verbal victimization, and the development of children's negative inferential styles and depressive symptoms,” Cognitive Therapy and Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 161–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. B. Bleichmar, “Some subtypes of depression and their implications for psychoanalytic treatment,” International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 935–961, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. Küchenhoff, “Verlust des Selbst, Verlust des Anderen—die doppelte Zerstörung von Nähe und Ferne im Trauma,” Psyche—Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und Ihre Anwendungen, vol. 58, pp. 811–835, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  84. J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss: Vol. 1. Loss, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1969.
  85. J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss: Volume 2. Separation: Anxiety and Anger, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  86. J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss: Vol 3. Loss: Sadness and Depression, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1980.
  87. P. Fonagy, T. Leigh, M. Steele et al., “The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 22–31, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. I. H. Meyer, K. Muenzenmaier, J. Cancienne, and E. Struening, “Reliability and validity of a measure of sexual and physical abuse histories among women with serious mental illness,” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 213–219, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. R. Brewin, B. Andrews, and I. H. Gotlib, “Psychopathology and early experience: a reappraisal of retrospective reports,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 82–98, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, “Psychoanalyse. Ein Anwendungsfeld bei chronischer Depression,” Psychotherapie im Dialog, vol. 14, pp. 26–29, 2013. View at Google Scholar