Depression Research and Treatment / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Connections of Pregnancy-, Delivery-, and Infant-Related Risk Factors and Negative Life Events on Postpartum Depression and Their Role in First and Recurrent Depression

Table 1

Adverse experiences during the antenatal and postnatal period in the nondepressed and depressed group.

⁢Nondepressed group⁢Depressed group value5

Unwanted pregnancy65.82120.40.002
Depression during pregnancy54.84442.3<0.001
Mental symptoms during pregnancy excl. depression1211.53533.7<0.001
 (i) Fears32.91110.60.027
 (ii) Miscellaneous198.72726.00.001

Complicated pregnancy4442.35048.10.403
 (i) Hyperemesis43.81514.40.008
 (ii) Pregnancy complications24139.44240.40.887
 (iii) Infertility treatment43.811.00.3666

Complicated delivery3129.84644.70.031
 (i) Pain76.72019.20.007
 (ii) Miscellaneous32423.127260.629

Infant’s symptoms and illnesses1413.53230.80.003
 (i) Infantile colic65.81716.30.015
 (ii) Fetal abnormalities43.854.81.0006
 (iii) Miscellaneous443.8109.60.097
Breastfeeding cessation1817.34038.50.001

Negative life events2726.04745.20.004
 (i) Death of significant others1211.51312.50.831
 (ii) Sickness (own or significant others)87.71615.40.083
 (iii) Relationship problems54.81716.30.007
 (iv) Socioeconomic problems43.887.70.234

, panic, obsessions, insomnia, fatigue, tearfulness, sensitivity, psychosomatic symptoms, headache, and loss of appetite. 2Pain, diabetes mellitus, anemia, toxemia, preeclampsia, hepatogestosis, pruritus, premature contractions, infection, vaginal bleeding, and small-for-date infant. 3No contractions, lengthy labor, instrumental delivery, excessive bleeding, infection, emergency section, and fatigue. 4Eating problems, breathing problems, infections, and allergy. 5Pearson’s chi-square test. 6Fisher’s exact test.

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