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Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3460462, 7 pages
Research Article

Prevalence and Severity of Depression and Its Association with Substance Use in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia
2College of Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Ethiopia
3Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia

Received 20 November 2015; Revised 15 February 2016; Accepted 16 February 2016

Academic Editor: Martin Alda

Copyright © 2016 Andualem Mossie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects 350 million people worldwide. Substance use could be the risk factor for depression. Objective. We aim to determine the prevalence and severity of depression and its association with substance use. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 650 respondents in Jimma town in March 2014. A multistage stratified sampling method was conducted. Structured questionnaire and Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale were used for data collection. Data analysis was done using the SPSS Version 20.0 for Windows. Results. The participation rate of respondents was 590/650 (90.77%). The proportion of females was 300 (50.9%). The current prevalence of depression was 171 (29.0%). Based on the BDI-II grading of the severity of depression, 102 (59.6%) had mild, 56 (32.7%) had moderate, 13 (7.6%) had severe depression. In the present study, age of 55 years and above [OR = 5.94, CI: 2.26–15.58], being widowed [OR = 5.18, CI: 1.18–22.76], illiterates [OR = 9.06, CI: 2.96–27.75], khat chewing [OR = 10.07, CI: 5.57–18.25], cigarette smoking [OR = 3.15, CI: 1.51–6.58], and shisha usage [OR = 3.04, CI: 1.01–9.19] were significantly and independently associated with depression. Conclusion. The finding depicted that depression was a moderate public health problem. Advanced age, being widowed, illiterate, khat chewing, and cigarette and shisha smocking could be the potential risk factors for depression. Risk reduction is recommended.