Table of Contents
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy
Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 223-229

Combined Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Treatment of Gallstones and Bile Duct Stones

Department of General Surgery, Civil Hospital, via Stelvio 25, Sondrio 23100, Italy

Received 4 November 1998; Revised 10 March 1999; Accepted 5 April 1999

Copyright © 1999 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The best treatment of bile duct lithiasis in the era of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy has not yet been defined, as we can choose between different kinds of therapies which range from the traditional laparotomic treatment to the more modern endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Although in some centres a wholly laparoscopic access to the bile duct is used, we believe that the fastest, safest and most reliable method is still the sequential treatment, endoscopic and laparoscopic. In our experience the endoscopic cleaning of the choledochus was performed in 87.1% of the cases, with no mortality and 4.2% morbidity.