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Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 969868, 8 pages
Research Article

Update on Management of Caustic and Foreign Body Ingestion in Children

1Paediatric Surgery Unit, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padova, Italy
2Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, NiguardaCa' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy
3Poison Control Centre, Bergamo, Italy
4Pediatric Gastroenterology Division, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
5Airways Endoscopic Surgery Unit, Padova General Hospital, Padua, Italy
6Digestive Surgery and Endoscopy Unit, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy
7Pediatric Gastroenterology and Endoscopic Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
8Pediatric Surgery Unit, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy
9Pediatric Gastroenterology, G Gaslini Institute, Genoa, Italy
10Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Spirito Santo Hospital, Pescara, Italy
11Paediatric Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Received 21 May 2009; Accepted 28 September 2009

Academic Editor: Lars Aabakken

Copyright © 2009 Pietro Betalli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The following recommendations for management of caustic and foreign body ingestion in children have been developed following a multicentre study performed by the Italian Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP). They are principally addressed to medical professionals involved in casualty. Because there is paucity of good quality clinical trials in children on this topic, many of the recommendations are currently extrapolated from adult experiences or based on experts opinions. The document represents a level 2 to 5 degree of evidence (according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence), gathered from clinical experience, recent studies, and expert reports discussed during a consensus conference of the Endoscopic Section of the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. This working group comprises paediatricians, endoscopists, paediatric surgeons, toxicologists, and ENT surgeons, who are all actively involved in the management of these children. Recommendations are intended to serve as an aid to clinical judgement, not to replace it and therefore do not provide answers to every clinical question; nor does adherence to them ensure a successful outcome in every case. The ultimate decision on the clinical management of an individual patient will always depend on the specific clinical circumstances of the patient, and on the clinical judgement of the health care team.