Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2006 / Article

Lecture Series | Open Access

Volume 3 |Article ID 169431 | https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel016

Paolo Bellavite, Riccardo Ortolani, Anita Conforti, "Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, Article ID 169431, 16 pages, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel016

Immunology and Homeopathy. 3. Experimental Studies on Animal Models

Received05 Dec 2005
Accepted16 Mar 2006


A search of the literature and the experiments carried out by the authors of this review show that there are a number of animal models where the effect of homeopathic dilutions or the principles of homeopathic medicine have been tested. The results relate to the immunostimulation by ultralow doses of antigens, the immunological models of the ‘simile’, the regulation of acute or chronic inflammatory processes and the use of homeopathic medicines in farming. The models utilized by different research groups are extremely etherogeneous and differ as the test medicines, the dilutions and the outcomes are concerned. Some experimental lines, particularly those utilizing mice models of immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of homeopathic complex formulations, give support to a real effect of homeopathic high dilutions in animals, but often these data are of preliminary nature and have not been independently replicated. The evidence emerging from animal models is supporting the traditional ‘simile’ rule, according to which ultralow doses of compounds, that in high doses are pathogenic, may have paradoxically a protective or curative effect. Despite a few encouraging observational studies, the effectiveness of the homeopathic prevention or therapy of infections in veterinary medicine is not sufficiently supported by randomized and controlled trials.

Copyright © 2006 Paolo Bellavite et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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