Multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) is a gene that expresses P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter protein. Genetic polymorphisms of MDR1 can be associated with Sasang constitutions because Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) prescribes different drugs according to different constitutions. A Questionnaire for Sasang Constitution Classification II (QSCC II) was used to diagnose Sasang constitutions. Two hundred and seven healthy people whose Sasang constitutions had been identified were tested. Genotype analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and pyrosequencing were used in MDR1 C1236T, and in MDR1 G2677T/A and C3435T, respectively. Significant differences in MDR1 C1236T genotypes were found between So-yangin and So-eumin. MDR1 G2677T/A genotype also showed significant differences in allele distribution between So-yangin and Tae-eumin. So-yangin and So-eumin showed significant differences in the distribution of both 1236C-2677G-3435C and 1236T-2677G-3435T, haplotypes of MDR1. The genetic polymorphism of the MDR1 gene was thus shown to be an indicator that could distinguish So-yangin from other constitutions.