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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 7 (2010), Issue 1, Pages 63-68
Original Article

AMP N1-Oxide, a Unique Compound of Royal Jelly, Induces Neurite Outgrowth from PC12 Vells via Signaling by Protein Kinase A Independent of that by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

1Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1, Mitahora-higashi, Gifu 502-8585, Japan
2Nagaragawa Research Center, API Co., Ltd, Nagara, Gifu 502-0071, Japan

Received 12 May 2007; Accepted 20 August 2007

Copyright © 2010 Noriko Hattori et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Earlier we identified adenosine monophosphate (AMP) N1-oxide as a unique compound of royal jelly (RJ) that induces neurite outgrowth (neuritegenesis) from cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells via the adenosine A2A receptor. Now, we found that AMP N1-oxide stimulated the phosphorylation of not only mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but also that of cAMP/calcium-response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MAPK activation by a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not influence the AMP N1-oxide-induced neuritegenesis, whereas that of protein kinase A (PKA) by a selective inhibitor, KT5720, significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. AMP N1-oxide also had the activity of suppressing the growth of PC12 cells, which correlated well with the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. KT5720 restored the growth of AMP N1-oxide-treated PC12 cells. It is well known that nerve growth factor suppresses proliferation of PC12 cells before causing stimulation of neuronal differentiation. Thus, AMP N1-oxide elicited neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, as evidenced by generation of neurites, and inhibited cell growth through adenosine A2A receptor-mediated PKA signaling, which may be responsible for characteristic actions of RJ.