Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 185913, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep231
Original Article

Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice

1Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Musashino University, Shinmachi Nishitokyo-shi, Tokyo 202-8585, Japan
2Department of clinical pharmacy, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa, Japan
3Tomei Atsugi Hospital, Atsugi City, Kanagawa, Japan
4Toyo Shinyaku Co., Ltd, Tosu-Shi, Saga, Japan

Received 10 August 2009; Accepted 1 December 2009

Copyright © 2011 Tsutomu Shimada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-α. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption.