Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2011 / Article / Tab 4

Original Article

The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

Table 4

Mean (standard deviation) TRF DSM-oriented scale scores by classroom.

TE1 (n = 24)TE2 (n = 22)TE3 (n = 30)TE4 (n = 25)

ConditionDCNDCN
TRF scale
 Baseline AN0.5 (0.7)0.1 (0.3)0.5 (1.1)0.3 (0.7)
 Post-AN0.04 (0.2)0.4 (0.6)0.2 (0.6)0.4 (0.7)
 Difference AN0.46 (0.7)–0.3 (0.6)0.3 (0.8)–0.1 (0.9)
 Baseline AH2.5 (2.8)4.8 (4.7)1.9 (2.8)4.7 (4.5)
 Post-AH1.1 (1.5)5.3 (4.3)1.5 (2.5)5.9 (4.8)
 Difference AH1.4 (2.4)–0.5 (1.9)0.4 (1.6)–1.2 (2.9)
 Baseline I1.7 (1.9)2.0 (2.1)0.5 (1.2)3.0 (3.3)
 Post-I0.6 (1.1)2.5 (1.8)0.2 (0.6)3.6 (3.1)
 Difference I1.1 (1.5)–0.5 (1.0)0.3 (0.9)–0.6 (1.8)
 Baseline OD0.04 (0.2)0.3 (0.7)0.9 (2.0)0.6 (1.3)
 Post OD0.4 (1.2)0.4 (1.2)0.4 (1.3)0.9 (1.6)
 Difference OD–0.36 (0.2)–0.1 (1.0)0.5 (1.2)–0.3 (1.0)

TE: teacher; D: drumming; CN: control; TRF: Teacher’s Report Form; Difference: difference score (post-intervention/control minus baseline); AN: anxiety problems; AH: attention deficit/hyperactivity problems; I: inattention (subscale of AH); OD: oppositional defiant problems. A positive value for difference scores indicates improvement whereas a negative value indicates worsening of symptoms.