Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2011 / Article / Tab 5

Original Article

The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

Table 5

Mean (standard deviation) TRF other scale scores by classroom.

TE1 (n = 24)TE2 (n  = 22)TE3 (n  = 30)TE4 (n = 25)

ConditionDCNDCN
TRF Scale
 Baseline PT0.8 (1.3)1.3 (1.2)1.8 (2.1)2.9 (2.4)
 Post- PT0.3 (0.9)2.2 (1.6)0.6 (1.1)2.5 (1.5)
 Difference PT0.5 (1.6)−0.9 (1.8)1.2 (1.6)0.4 (1.8)
 Baseline ST1.2 (1.5)2.3 (1.7)0.3 (0.7)2.1 (2.8)
 Post-ST0.3 (0.5)3.3 (2.1)0.2 (0.5)2.2 (2.6)
 Difference ST0.9 (1.4)−1.0 (1.4)0.1 (0.3)−0.1 (1.6)

TE: teacher; D: drumming; CN: control; TRF: Teacher’s Report Form; Difference: difference score (post-intervention/control minus baseline); PT: post-traumatic stress problems; ST: sluggish cognitive tempo. A positive value for difference scores indicates improvement whereas a negative value indicates worsening of symptoms.