307548.fig.007a
(a)
307548.fig.007b
(b)
Figure 7: DBT stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of cultured primary osteoblasts. (a) Primary culture of osteoblasts were treated with 1 mg mL−1 DBT, RA, RAS, RA + RAS, and Dex + Vitamin C (positive control). After 96-h incubation, cultures were collected to perform cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity assays as in Figure 2. Values are expressed in percentage of increase as compared with control cultures (without herbal extract), and are in mean ± SEM, where n = 5, each with triplicate samples. **P < .01. (b) Primary osteoblasts were treated as in (a) for 12 h. Total RNAs were collected to determine the change of CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9 mRNA expressions by real-time PCR analysis as in Figure 3. Data are normalized by ΔΔC t method using 18S rRNA as an internal control, and expressed as the ratio to basal reading where the control (without herbal extract) equals to 1, and in mean ± SEM, where n = 5, each with triplicate samples.