Figure 8: Summary for DBT-induced osteogenic effects and specific gene expressions in osteoblastic cells. Application of DBT onto osteoblastic cells triggers the downstream signaling mechanisms including the Erk-dependent and ER-dependent pathways, which may be mediated directly by DBT or indirectly by a receptor(s) on plasma membrane. Such signaling activations finally result in stimulating cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and a set of specific gene transcriptions.