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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 380923, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/380923
Research Article

Leaf Extracts of Calocedrus formosana (Florin) Induce G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

1Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
3Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
4Institute of Biomedical Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
5Department of Forestry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan

Received 14 December 2010; Revised 14 March 2011; Accepted 24 March 2011

Copyright © 2011 Sheau-Yun Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Calocedrus formosana (Florin) bark acetone/ethylacetate extracts are known to exert an antitumor effect on some human cancer cell lines, but the mechanism is yet to be defined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Florin leaf methanol extracts on the growth and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cell lines. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay showed that the growth of these bladder cancer cells was potently inhibited by the Florin leaf extracts. The cell cycle of these extract-treated cells (TCCSUP cells) was arrested at the G2/M phase as determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis revealed the increases of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 kinase levels, alone with the decrease of phosphorylated Cdc2 kinase, after treating these cells with the extracts. An immunofluorescence assessment of β-tubulin showed decreased levels of polymerized tubulin in treated cells. However, the proteolytic cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase and the activation of caspase-3/-8/-9 were all increased upon treatments of extracts. The concurrent increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels indicated that the extracts could induce apoptosis in these treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the Florin leaf extracts may be an effective antibladder cancer agent.