Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 428108, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep010
Review Article

Acupuncture's Effects in Treating the Sequelae of Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries: A Review of Allopathic and Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA

Received 27 July 2008; Accepted 12 January 2009

Copyright © 2011 Peter T. Dorsher and Peter M. McIntosh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “Spinal Cord Injury Information Network,” January 2008, http://www.spinalcord. uab.edu/show.asp?durki=21446.
  2. M. B. Bracken, M. J. Shepard, T. R. Holford et al., “Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazad mesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury: results of the Third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 277, no. 20, pp. 1597–1604, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Chinnock and I. Roberts, “Gangliosides for acute spinal cord injury,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, article, Article ID CD004444, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. DeForge, J. Nymark, E. Lemaire et al., “Effect of 4-aminopyridine on gait in ambulatory spinal cord injuries: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial,” Spinal Cord, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 674–685, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. E. Petitjean, V. Pointillart, F. Dixmerias et al., “Medical treatment of spinal cord injury in the acute stage,” Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation, vol. 17, pp. 114–122, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  6. M. B. Bracken, M. J. Shepard, W. F. Collins et al., “A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 322, no. 20, pp. 1405–1411, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. M. K. Wong, C.-P. Leong, T.-Y. Su, S.-W. Yu, W.-C. Tsai, and C. P. C. Chen, “Clinical trial of acupuncture for patients with spinal cord injuries,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Deadman, M. Al-Khafaji, and K. Baker, A Manual of Acupuncture, Hove, Journal of Chinese Medicine Publications, East Sussex, UK, 1998.
  9. G. Maciocia, The Channels of Acupuncture, Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
  10. J.-S. Han, “Acupuncture and endorphins,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 361, no. 1–3, pp. 258–261, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. Wang, “A survey of the treatment of traumatic paraplegia by traditional Chinese medicine,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 296–303, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. X. Gao, C. Gao, J. Gao et al., “Acupuncture treatment of complete traumatic paraplegia–analysis of 261 cases,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 134–137, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P.-T. Cheng, M.-K. Wong, and P.-L. Chang, “A therapeutic trial of acupuncture in neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patients—a preliminary report,” Spinal Cord, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 476–480, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Honjo, Y. Naya, O. Ukimura, M. Kojima, and T. Miki, “Acupuncture on clinical symptoms and urodynamic measurements in spinal-cord-injured patients with detrusor hyperreflexia,” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 190–195, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Y. Zhou, J. Li, C. M. Li et al., “Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL 35) on retention of urine induced by spinal cord injury,” Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 237–239, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Nayak, S. C. Shiflett, N. E. Schoenberger et al., “Is acupuncture effective in treating chronic pain after spinal cord injury?” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1578–1586, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. M. Rapson, N. Wells, J. Pepper, N. Majid, and H. Boon, “Acupuncture as a promising treatment for below-level central neuropathic pain: a retrospective study,” Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. A. Dyson-Hudson, P. Kadar, M. LaFountaine et al., “Acupuncture for chronic shoulder pain in persons with spinal cord injury: a small-scale clinical trial,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 1276–1283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Averill, A. C. Cotter, S. Nayak, R. J. Matheis, and S. C. Shiflett, “Blood pressure response to acupuncture in a population at risk for autonomic dysreflexia,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 81, no. 11, pp. 1494–1497, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. W. Yang, S. M. Jeong, K. M. Seo, and T. C. Nam, “Effects of corticosteroid and electroacupuncture on experimental spinal cord injury in dogs,” Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Chou, R. Hartl, and V. K. H. Sonntag, “Conus medullaris syndrome without lower-extremity involvement in L-1 burst fractures: report of four cases,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 265–269, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. J. Shenot, D. A. Rivas, T. Watanabe, and M. B. Chancellor, “Early predictors of bladder recovery and urodynamics after spinal cord injury,” Neurourology and Urodynamics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 25–29, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Madersbacher, “Neurogenic bladder dysfunction,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 9, pp. 303–307, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  24. T. Watanabe, A. R. Vaccaro, H. Kumon, W. C. Welch, D. A. Rivas, and M. B. Chancellor, “High incidence of occult neurogenic bladder dysfunction in neurologically intact patients with thoracolumbar spinal injuries,” Journal of Urology, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 965–968, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. J. Weiss, G. W. Fried, M. B. Chancellor, G. J. Herbison, J. F. Ditunno Jr., and W. E. Staas Jr., “Spinal cord injury and bladder recovery,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1133–1135, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. T. Dorsher, R. Reimer, and E. Nottmeier, “Treatment of urinary incontinence due to incomplete spinal cord injury with acupuncture and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: two cases and literature review,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. C. Schönherr, J. W. Groothoff, G. A. Mulder, and W. H. Eisma, “Functional outcome of patients with spinal cord injury: rehabilitation outcome study,” Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 457–463, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. D. Cardenas and M. P. Jensen, “Treatments for chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury: a survey study,” Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 109–117, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Wershagen, Analysis of neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury, Doctoral thesis, Karolinska Intsitutet, 2008.
  30. E.G. Widerstrom-Noga, E. Felipe-Cuervo, and R. P. Yezierski, “Chronic pain after spinal injury:interference with sleep and daily activities,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 1571–1577, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. P. Waring and F. M. Maynard, “Shoulder pain in acute traumatic quadriplegia,” Paraplegia, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Pomeranz, “Do endorphins mediate acupuncture analgesia?” Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, vol. 18, pp. 351–359, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Shen, “Research on the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture: review of selected studies and methodological issues,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. S121–S127, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. A. Flachskampf, J. Gallasch, O. Gefeller et al., “Randomized trial of acupuncture to lower blood pressure,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 24, pp. 3121–3129, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Y. Wong, A Manual of Neuroanatomic Acupuncture: Volume 2: Neurologic Disorders, Pain and Stress Clinic, Toronto, Canada, 2001.
  36. J. M. Wood, P. E. Evans III, K. U. Schallreuter et al., “A multicenter study on the use of pulsed low-intensity direct current for healing chronic stage II and stage III decubitus ulcers,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 8, pp. 999–1009, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. C. Biedebach, “Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers using electrical stimulation,” in Pressure Ulcer Research: Current and Future Perspectives, D. Bader, C. Bouten, D. Colin, and C. Domens, Eds., pp. 89–107, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  38. Y. Yu, “Transcutaneous electric stimulation at acupoints in the treatment of spinal spasticity: effects and mechanism,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 593–595, 1993, 637. View at Google Scholar
  39. H.-W. Dong, L.-H. Wang, M. Zhang, and J.-S. Han, “Decreased dynorphin a (1–17) in the spinal cord of spastic rats after the compressive injury,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 189–195, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Yang, B. Li, T. S. Liu, D. M. Zhao, and F. A. Hu, “Effect of electroacupuncture on proliferation of astrocytes after spinal cord injury,” Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, vol. 25, pp. 569–572, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  41. B. Peng, X. F. Meng, M. Li et al., “Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and glial fibrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury in rats,” Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 219–223, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  42. Y. Wu, Z. Sun, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, and S. Sun, “Effect of acupuncture on free radicals in rats with early experimental spinal cord injury,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Q. M. Han, J. Xie, S. T. Chai, J. Fang, and Q. Liu, “Effect of Governer Meridian electro-acupuncture on water channel aquaporin-4 in experimental spinal cord injured rats,” Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 637–639, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  44. M. J. Politis and M. A. Korchinski, “Beneficial effects of acupuncture treatment following experimental spinal cord injury: a behavioral morphological, and biochemical study,” Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 37–49, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  45. Z. Zhu, “Effects of electroacupuncture on laminin expression after spinal cord injury in rats,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 525–527, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Jin, Z. Tao, W. Ren, and X. Du, “Electro-acupuncture effects on experimental spinal cord injury of the cat as evaluated by acid phosphatase detection,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 50–53, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Wu, C. Liu, and Q. Chen, “Effect of acupuncture on enzymology of motor neuron of anterior horn of experimental spinal cord injury in rats,” Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 740–742, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Uchida and H. Hotta, “Acupuncture affects regional blood flow in various organs,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 145–151, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. X. Ma, “Neurobiology of acupuncture: toward CAM,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 41–47, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. F. Hauser, J. V. Aldrich, K. J. Anderson et al., “Pathobiology of dynorphins in trauma and disease,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 216–235, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus