Table 2: Characteristic of included studies.

Author, yearNo. of participantsAge, mean  ±  SDYoga typeFrequencyDuration, weekOutcome measuresResults

Danhauer et al., 2009 [17]4455.8 ± 9.9Restorative yoga: asanas (postures done with awareness), pranayama (voluntarily regulated nostril breathing), and savasana (deep relaxation)75 min weekly10QOL (SF-12 and FACT_B), fatigue (FACT-Fatigue), depression (CES-D), positive and negative affect (PANAS), and spirituality (FACIT-Sp), sleep quality (PSQI)Group differences favoring yoga group in mental health, depression, positive affect, and spirituality. Significant baseline*group interactions in negative affect and emotional well-being.
Raghavendra et al., 2009 [18]8846.0 ± 9.1Integrated yoga: asanas, pranayama, meditation, and yogic relaxation1 hr, 3 sessions weekly6Anxiety and depression (HADS),  level of stress (PSS)Significant between group differences on anxiety ( ), depression ( ), perceived stress ( ), salivary cortisol ( ), and pooled mean cortisol ( ). significant positive correlation between morning salivary cortisol level and anxiety and depression
Rao et al., 2009 [19]98NAIntegrated yoga: asanas, pranayama, meditation, and yogic relaxation60 min daily24Anxiety (STAI)Overall decrease in both self-reported state anxiety ( ) and trait anxiety ( )
Lengacher et al., 2009 [20]8457.5 ± 9.4MBSR: gentle yoga2 hr weekly6Fear of recurrence (Concerns about Recurrence Scale, anxiety (STAI), depressive symptoms (CES-D), optimism (Life Orientation Test), perceived stress (PSS), QOL (SF), social support (MOSS), spiritualitySignificant between group differences on levels of depression, anxiety, fear of recurrence, energy, physical functioning, and physical role functioning (two-sided )
Banerjee et al., 2007 [21]6844.0 ± 1.4Integrated yoga: asanas, pranayama, nidra (guided relaxation with imagery)90 min weekly6Anxiety and depression (HADS), level of stress (PSS), DNA damageSignificant between group differences on HADS score, mean PSS, and DNA damage ( )
Moadel et al., 2007 [22]12854.8 ± 9.9Hatha yoga: physical stretches, breathing, and meditation1.5 hr weekly12QOL (FACT-G), spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp), fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue), distress (Distressed Mood Index)Significant between group differences on social well-being ( ). For patients not receiving CT during intervention, significant between group differences on overall QOL, emotional well-being, social well-being, spiritual well-being, and distress mood
Culos-reed et al., 2006 [23]3851.1 ± 10.3Yoga: asanas, shevasana (relaxation)75 min7Anxiety and depression (POMS), QOL (EORTC QLQ-C30), symptom of stress (SOSI), physical activity (LSI), fitness (grip strength, flexibility, and Rockport Walking Test)Significant differences between groups at post-intervention in global QOL, emotional function, diarrhea, and tension ( ).
Monti et al., 2006 [24]11153.6 ± 11.5MBAT: gentle yoga2.5 hr weekly8Psychological distress and stress-related somatic complaints (SCL-90-R), Health-related QOL (SF-36)Significant between group differences on symptoms of distress ( ), mental composite of SF-36 ( ), general health ( ), mental health ( ), social functioning ( ), and vitality ( )
Cohen et al., 2004 [25]3951Tibetan yoga: controlled breathing, mindfulness, postures from Tsa lung (channels and vital breath), Trul khor (magical wheel)weekly7Distress (IES), anxiety (STATE), depression (CES-D), fatigue (BFI), sleep disturbances (PSQI)Significant between group differences on sleep disturbance scores ( ), sleep quality ( ), sleep latency ( ), sleep duration ( ), use of sleep medications ( ). no significant differences between groups in terms of intrusion, state anxiety, depression, or fatigue
Speca et al., 2000 [26]9051MBSR: gentle yoga90 min weekly7Anxiety and depression (POMS), stress-related symptoms (SOSI)Significant between group differences on total mood disturbance, subscales of depression, anxiety, anger, confusion, vigor, and symptoms of stress.

Abbreviations: QOL: quality of life; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PSS: Perceived Stress Scale; STAI: state trait anxiety inventory; SF-12: The 12-Item Short Form Health Survey; FACT-B: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast; FACT-Fatigue: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue; FACIT-Sp: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spirituality; CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; PSQI: Pittsburgh sleep quality inventory; PANSA: positive and negative affect schedule; FACT-G: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General; FACIT-Fatigue: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue; POMS: profile of mood states; SOSI: symptoms of stress inventory; EORTC QLQ-C30: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Version 3.0; LSI: The Leisure Score Index; IES: Impact of Events Scale; STATE: Speilberger State Anxiety Inventory; BFI: Brief Fatigue Inventory; NA: not available; MBSR: mindfulness-based stress reduction; SF: Medical Outcomes Studies Short-Form General Health Survey; MOSS: Medical Outcomes Social Support Survey; MBAT: mindfulness-based art therapy; SCL-90-R: Symptoms Checklist Revised; SF-36: Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey; CT: chemotherapy; min: minute; hr: hour.